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28 % Reflective Crack Length Figure 23. Reflection cracking amount data from test sections in New York City. is minimized. The process used to achieve the calibration, when the error between observed and predicted crack lengths which determines and in the reflection cracking model, was minimized. Since the predicted crack length is calcu- was conducted using available field reflection cracking data lated by the calibrated model at each test section, a solution and an iterative method of the System Identification method was required to determine the parameters and process (details of the calibration process are presented in in the model. In this study, the system identification process Appendix L). was used. The purpose of the system identification process is to develop System Identification Process a mathematical model which describes the behavior of a sys- tem (real physical process). The actual system and the mathe- The reflection cracking amount and severity model at a matical model are identified when the error between them is given severity level was considered to have been calibrated minimized or satisfies the error criteria; otherwise, the model 100 90 80 % Reflective Crack Length 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 Age, days Control GlassGrid Pavetrack Hatelit Petrogrid Pavedry Stargrid Add 1"HMA HotinPlace PFC w/ LevelUp PFC w/ SealCoat Figure 24. Low severity reflection cracking amount data in Amarillo, Texas.