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17 being among those needing to be addressed to achieve, main- zen advisory committees, etc., to improve piggybacking tain, and improve successful, effective, and cost-effective opportunities. public involvement. These included: Developing industry standards for public involvement consultants. Approaching public involvement as more than the logis- Implementing public involvement activities to help aid tical requirements that surround a public hearing and decision making and ensure the best use of resources. as a continuing process that is woven throughout every Evaluating the transferability of programs that have been project. created, tested, and used by others. Adding a public involvement specialist who has the appropriate professional background and/or work expe- SUGGESTIONS FOR RESEARCH rience necessary to identify the demographic character- istics of the population, understand the implication of The following topics were identified for future study: those characteristics on the public's abilities and con- straints to participate in public involvement activities, Skill set necessary for a public involvement professional. design a public involvement plan tailored to that popu- Skill set necessary for consultants to be certified or lation, and estimate the cost of implementing that pub- prequalified to perform public involvement outreach. lic involvement plan. Internal and external training needs for public involve- Designing measures of effectiveness that focus on out- ment staff members. comes such as reflecting the community characteristics Process to quantify the cost of public involvement. and values as opposed to process issues such as sending Ways for agencies to adapt to emerging changes and con- out a certain number of newsletters. tinuing trends in socioeconomic demographic charac- Outlining staff training needs and including them through teristics and communication technologies. internal and external training, attendance at conferences, Public involvement process to identify, understand, utilization of webinars, in-house mentoring on a con- and accommodate the public or publics within a given tinuing basis, and building a library with publications, study area. guidance, plans, and manuals that foster best practices. Transferability of "successful" processes and strategies Adding the capacity to create and utilize visualizations, used by others such as Effective Transportation Deci- videos, the Internet, the intranet, and social networking. sion Making and Community Characteristics Program. Developing and coordinating relationships with commu- Consequences of not defining effective and cost-effective nity-based organizations, faith-based organizations, citi- public involvement.