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17 being among those needing to be addressed to achieve, main- zen advisory committees, etc., to improve piggybacking tain, and improve successful, effective, and cost-effective opportunities. public involvement. These included: · Developing industry standards for public involvement consultants. · Approaching public involvement as more than the logis- · Implementing public involvement activities to help aid tical requirements that surround a public hearing and decision making and ensure the best use of resources. as a continuing process that is woven throughout every · Evaluating the transferability of programs that have been project. created, tested, and used by others. · Adding a public involvement specialist who has the appropriate professional background and/or work expe- SUGGESTIONS FOR RESEARCH rience necessary to identify the demographic character- istics of the population, understand the implication of The following topics were identified for future study: those characteristics on the public's abilities and con- straints to participate in public involvement activities, · Skill set necessary for a public involvement professional. design a public involvement plan tailored to that popu- · Skill set necessary for consultants to be certified or lation, and estimate the cost of implementing that pub- prequalified to perform public involvement outreach. lic involvement plan. · Internal and external training needs for public involve- · Designing measures of effectiveness that focus on out- ment staff members. comes such as reflecting the community characteristics · Process to quantify the cost of public involvement. and values as opposed to process issues such as sending · Ways for agencies to adapt to emerging changes and con- out a certain number of newsletters. tinuing trends in socioeconomic demographic charac- · Outlining staff training needs and including them through teristics and communication technologies. internal and external training, attendance at conferences, · Public involvement process to identify, understand, utilization of webinars, in-house mentoring on a con- and accommodate the public or publics within a given tinuing basis, and building a library with publications, study area. guidance, plans, and manuals that foster best practices. · Transferability of "successful" processes and strategies · Adding the capacity to create and utilize visualizations, used by others such as Effective Transportation Deci- videos, the Internet, the intranet, and social networking. sion Making and Community Characteristics Program. · Developing and coordinating relationships with commu- · Consequences of not defining effective and cost-effective nity-based organizations, faith-based organizations, citi- public involvement.