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4 TECHNICAL APPROACH by telephone. At the appointed time, each was contacted and four agency representatives from the three agencies partici- The technical approach used in preparing this synthesis con- pated in the detailed telephone interviews. Minor adjustments sisted of conducting a literature review, designing a tele- were made to the survey as a result of their participation. phone survey instrument, conducting detailed telephone interviews, and summarizing the results of these two efforts to identify where agencies creatively have used low-cost tools Revised Survey Participants and techniques. Following the beta testing of the survey and its revision indi- viduals at 8 state DOTs, 11 MPOs (also known as an area Literature Search development district, a council of governments, a regional planning commission, a metropolitan council, an area coun- A literature review was conducted that predominately utilized cil, and a regional planning commission), 2 transit agencies, a Transportation Research Information Services (TRIS) and 2 local governments were contacted between November search. This resulted in the identification of 57 publications, 2008 and April 2009 and sent a copy of the survey. Appoint- 16 websites, 4 metropolitan planning organization (MPO) ments were made to conduct the survey by telephone at this websites, four DOT websites, 6 poverty and cultural publica- time, and 27 agency representatives from 23 agencies partic- tions, and 2 poverty and cultural websites that were thought to ipated in the telephone interviews. The 26 agencies that par- be relevant to this project. An abstract of each publication and ticipated in the beta test and the revised survey were located website has been provided so that the reader will have a clearer in 19 states, served constituencies that ranged in size from idea of the publication's and website's focus. The results of the 82,000 to more than 33,000,000 people, had constituencies literature search can be found in the References. that were demographically homogeneous and diverse, and were located in areas that were rural and urban, as shown in Survey Design Figure 1. These agencies can be found in Appendix B. A survey instrument with 40 open-ended questions was cre- ated that addressed the direct focus of the project, additional Survey Results panel concerns, and potential factors that influenced the qual- ity of public involvement. The complete 40 question survey The 26 responses to the 40 question survey are summarized and can be found in Appendix A. The survey questions were presented by question and agency type. Under each agency divided into the following 11 areas of interest: type, an individual summary of each agency's response is pro- vided, which can be found in Appendix C. In addition, exam- Organizational structure ples of where agencies provided effective public involvement Staffing using limited resources have been documented in Appendix D. Cost quantification Public involvement process (social/community issues, ORGANIZATION OF THE REPORT studies, and reports) Public involvement process (level of effort, education, Chapter one provides information relative to the project back- and documentation) ground, technical approach, and organization of the report. Public involvement process (goals) Chapter two summarizes the findings of the literature review Public involvement process (communicating public and identifies publications and websites that are thought to pro- input and commitments) vide insight into achieving better public involvement. Chapter Definitions of successful, effective, and cost-effective three presents a summary of the survey results by each of public involvement the 11 areas of interest. Chapter four provides examples where Measures of effectiveness agencies have provided effective public involvement using Effective, cost-effective, and ineffective techniques limited resources. Chapter five presents conclusions from the Leveraging relationships. synthesis project and suggestions for further research. Survey Beta Test Participants The References contain an annotated list of the publica- tions and websites that address the focus of this study. A list In October 2008, individuals at three DOTs were contacted of key acronyms is also supplied. Appendix A is the survey and sent a copy of the initial survey. These individuals held instrument, Appendix B provides a list of the agencies sur- various positions of responsibility and authority within their veyed and the agencies' geographic locations, Appendix C agencies and were from a variety of professional disciplines. A provides a summary of the survey responses by question and follow-up telephone call was made to each to see if they would agency type, and Appendix D provides examples of how agen- be willing to participate in beta testing the survey. Each agreed cies creatively used low-cost tools and techniques to achieve and appointments were made with each to conduct the survey effective public involvement using limited resources.

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5 FIGURE 1 Geographic location of the participating transportation agencies.