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8 In addition to publications found through a search of the involvement in transportation, and potential performance mea- TRIS database, there were several non-transportation publica- sures. The following is a summary of the key conclusions: tions that directly addressed gaining an understanding of living in poverty. This distinction is important because most Define the project. Discover the public preferences to consultants and the public involvement professionals employed assist in making informed decisions. Outline commu- by transportation agencies have never lived in poverty and nity impact assessment process. may not be the same race or ethnicity of the public that they Identify the people to be reached. Develop a commu- seek to engage. As a result, they may have little or no under- nity profile and begin public involvement as early as standing of life from the public's perspective, as they lack any possible. Actively seek out and engage all groups in frame of reference. This disconnect often causes public creative ways where they are located. Address the con- involvement plans and activities to be designed and con- cerns of the traditionally underserved to advance fair- structed that do not address the public's life and work sched- ness and justice in agency decisions. ule, cultural background, religious beliefs, or other social or Identify basic tools and information sources, and ensure economic norms. A Framework for Understanding Poverty that staff conducting public involvement has the proper (Payne 2005), Bridges Out of Poverty: Strategies for Profes- skills and training. Outline the decision-making process sionals and Communities (Payne et al. 2001), and Hidden and describe the output needed from the public at each Rules of Class (Payne and Krabill 2002) were found to provide stage of the process. insight into the effect poverty can have on public involvement Collect data and analyze community impacts. For strategies. In addition, several business and travel books on those groups that are low literate and have limited cultural taboos are provided including Kiss, Bow, or Shake English proficiency, provide special guidance. Ensure Hands (Morrison and Conaway 2006), Gestures, the Do's and that the concerns of the traditionally underserved are Taboo's of Body Language Around the World (Axtell 1998), addressed. and Do's and Taboo's Around the World (Axtell 1993). Also, Maintain a systematic public involvement evaluation and websites from the University of Washington, Harborview feedback process for planning and project outreach activ- Medical Center in Seattle ( and the United ities. Ensure continuity in addressing public concerns. Kingdom Department of Transport on social exclusion (http:// Incorporate input from the public to improve decision are included. making. Decision making works best when built on a series of agreements. SUMMARY Document and publicize the findings. The goal of public participation, when well done, can The literature review provided insight into the state of the prac- improve the quality, legitimacy, and capacity of all tice of public involvement, continuing challenges for public involved in the policy process.