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ACRP AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM SYNTHESIS 21 Sponsored by Airport Energy Efficiency the Federal and Cost Reduction Aviation Administration A Synthesis of Airport Practice

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ACRP OVERSIGHT COMMITTEE* TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2010 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* CHAIR OFFICERS JAMES WILDING Chair: Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Metropolitan Washington Airports Governments, Arlington Authority (retired) Vice Chair: Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore Executive Director: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board VICE CHAIR MEMBERS JEFF HAMIEL MinneapolisSt. Paul J. BARRY BARKER, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY Metropolitan Airports Commission ALLEN D. BIEHLER, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg LARRY L. BROWN, SR., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson DEBORAH H. BUTLER, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern MEMBERS Corporation, Norfolk, VA JAMES CRITES WILLIAM A.V. CLARK, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, DallasFt. Worth International Airport Los Angeles RICHARD DE NEUFVILLE EUGENE A. CONTI, JR., Secretary of Transportation, North Carolina DOT, Raleigh Massachusetts Institute of Technology NICHOLAS J. GARBER, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, and KEVIN C. DOLLIOLE Director, Center for Transportation Studies, University of Virginia, Charlottesville Unison Consulting JEFFREY W. HAMIEL, Executive Director, Metropolitan Airports Commission, Minneapolis, MN JOHN K. DUVAL PAULA J. HAMMOND, Secretary, Washington State DOT, Olympia Austin Commercial, LP EDWARD A. (NED) HELME, President, Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC KITTY FREIDHEIM ADIB K. KANAFANI, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Freidheim Consulting SUSAN MARTINOVICH, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City STEVE GROSSMAN DEBRA L. MILLER, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka Jacksonville Aviation Authority SANDRA ROSENBLOOM, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson TOM JENSEN TRACY L. ROSSER, Vice President, Corporate Traffic, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Mandeville, LA National Safe Skies Alliance STEVEN T. SCALZO, Chief Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, WA HENRY G. (GERRY) SCHWARTZ, JR., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., CATHERINE M. LANG St. Louis, MO Federal Aviation Administration BEVERLY A. SCOTT, General Manager and Chief Executive Officer, Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid GINA MARIE LINDSEY Transit Authority, Atlanta, GA Los Angeles World Airports DAVID SELTZER, Principal, Mercator Advisors LLC, Philadelphia, PA CAROLYN MOTZ DANIEL SPERLING, Professor of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science and Policy; Hagerstown Regional Airport Director, Institute of Transportation Studies; and Interim Director, Energy Efficiency Center, RICHARD TUCKER University of California, Davis Huntsville International Airport KIRK T. STEUDLE, Director, Michigan DOT, Lansing DOUGLAS W. STOTLAR, President and CEO, Con-Way, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI EX OFFICIO MEMBERS C. MICHAEL WALTON, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of SABRINA JOHNSON Texas, Austin U.S. Environmental Protection Agency RICHARD MARCHI EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Airports Council International-- PETER H. APPEL, Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT North America J. RANDOLPH BABBITT, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT LAURA McKEE REBECCA M. BREWSTER, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Air Transport Association of America Smyrna, GA HENRY OGRODZINSKI GEORGE BUGLIARELLO, President Emeritus and University Professor, Polytechnic Institute National Association of State Aviation of New York University, Brooklyn; Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Officials Washington, DC MELISSA SABATINE ANNE S. FERRO, Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S.DOT American Association of Airport LEROY GISHI, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of Executives the Interior, Washington, DC ROBERT E. SKINNER, JR. EDWARD R. HAMBERGER, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC Transportation Research Board JOHN C. HORSLEY, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC DAVID T. MATSUDA, Deputy Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT SECRETARY VICTOR M. MENDEZ, Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT CHRISTOPHER W. JENKS WILLIAM W. MILLAR, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC Transportation Research Board ROBERT J. PAPP (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC CYNTHIA L. QUARTERMAN, Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S.DOT PETER M. ROGOFF, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT DAVID L. STRICKLAND, Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT JOSEPH C. SZABO, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT POLLY TROTTENBERG, Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy, U.S.DOT ROBERT L. VAN ANTWERP (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC *Membership as of June 2010. *Membership as of July 2010.

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AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ACRP SYNTHESIS 21 Airport Energy Efficiency and Cost Reduction A Synthesis of Airport Practice CONSULTANTS CRAIG R. LAU JOEL T. STROMGREN and DANIEL J. GREEN Miller Dunwiddie Architecture Minneapolis, Minnesota S UBSCRIBER C ATEGORIES Aviation Energy Research Sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2010 www.TRB.org

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AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ACRP SYNTHESIS 21 Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in Project 11-03, Topic S10-04 transportation of people and goods and in regional, national, and ISSN 1935-9187 international commerce. They are where the nation's aviation sys- ISBN 978-0-309-14316-5 tem connects with other modes of transportation and where federal Library of Congress Control Number 2010932654 responsibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and 2010 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common oper- ating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION The Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) serves as one Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. a study sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will The ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared be used to imply TRB or FAA endorsement of a particular product, method, by airport operating agencies and are not being adequately or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this addressed by existing federal research programs. It is modeled after document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate the successful National Cooperative Highway Research Program acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For and Transit Cooperative Research Program. The ACRP undertakes other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. research and other technical activities in a variety of airport subject areas, including design, construction, maintenance, operations, safety, security, policy, planning, human resources, and administra- NOTICE tion. The ACRP provides a forum where airport operators can coop- eratively address common operational problems. The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Airport The ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Cooperative Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Vision 100-Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research participants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, Council. the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from to review this report were chosen for their special competencies and with airport operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant indus- regard for appropriate balance. The report was reviewed by the technical try organizations such as the Airports Council International-North panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and America (ACI-NA), the American Association of Airport Execu- overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the tives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials Governing Board of the National Research Council. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those (NASAO), and the Air Transport Association (ATA) as vital links of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those to the airport community; (2) the TRB as program manager and sec- of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the retariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program spon- program sponsors. sor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academies formally initiating the program. The ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of air- port professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and Research Council, and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research research organizations. Each of these participants has different Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' interests and responsibilities, and each is an integral part of this names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the cooperative research effort. object of the report. Research problem statements for the ACRP are solicited period- ically but may be submitted to the TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed by the TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport professionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the Published reports of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing coop- AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM erative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, are available from: ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the Transportation Research Board intended end-users of the research: airport operating agencies, service Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW providers, and suppliers. The ACRP produces a series of research Washington, DC 20001 reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties, and industry associations may arrange for work- and can be ordered through the Internet at http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore shops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport-industry practitioners. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished schol- ars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and techni- cal matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Acad- emy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achieve- ments of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academys p urposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Acad- emy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scien- tific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both the Academies and the Insti- tute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisci- plinary, and multimodal. The Board's varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation depart- ments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

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ACRP COMMITTEE FOR PROJECT 11-03 COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS STAFF CHRISTOPHER W. JENKS, Director, Cooperative Research Programs CHAIR CRAWFORD F. JENCKS, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research BURR STEWART Programs Seattle, Washington MICHAEL R. SALAMONE, Senior Program Officer EILEEN P. DELANEY, Director of Publications MEMBERS RANDALL P. BURDETTE ACRP SYNTHESIS STAFF Virginia Department of Aviation STEPHEN R. GODWIN, Director for Studies and Special Programs GARY C. CATHEY JON M. WILLIAMS, Program Director, IDEA and Synthesis Studies California Department of Transportation GAIL R. STABA, Senior Program Officer KEVIN C. DOLLIOLE DON TIPPMAN, Editor Union Consulting, Inc. CHERYL KEITH, Senior Program Assistant JULIE KENFIELD DEBBIE IRVIN, Program Associate Jacobs Engineering Group, Inc. CAROLYN MOTZ TOPIC PANEL Hagerstown Regional Airport JOHN D. BULLOUGH, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute CHRISTINE GERENCHER, Transportation Research Board FAA LIAISON RUSTY T. HODAPP, Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport Board RANDY MOSENG KEVIN MEIKLE, Fresno Yosemite International Airport TERRY MOORE, Mid Ohio Valley Regional Airport Authority ACINORTH AMERICA LIAISON DAVE PITTMANN, RenoTahoe International Airport A.J. MULDOON DENNIS PROBST, MinneapolisSt. Paul International Airport ARLYN PURCELL, Port Authority of New York & New Jersey AIRCRAFT OWNERS AND PILOTS ASSOCIATION PAUL L. FRIEDMAN, Federal Aviation Administration (Liaison) JOHN L. COLLINS JULIE UNLAND, Federal Aviation Administration (Liaison) TRB LIAISON CHRISTINE GERENCHER Cover figure: Deep overhangs, integrated shading devices, and tinted, insulated glass reduce heat gain and cooling loads while allowing daylight to flood the main concourse at MSP Terminal 2 (Humphrey Terminal). (Photo Credit: Miller Dunwiddie Architecture, Minneapolis, MN.)

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FOREWORD Airport administrators, engineers, and researchers often face problems for which informa- tion already exists, either in documented form or as undocumented experience and practice. This information may be fragmented, scattered, and unevaluated. As a consequence, full knowledge of what has been learned about a problem may not be brought to bear on its solu- tion. Costly research findings may go unused, valuable experience may be overlooked, and due consideration may not be given to recommended practices for solving or alleviating the problem. There is information on nearly every subject of concern to the airport industry. Much of it derives from research or from the work of practitioners faced with problems in their day-to- day work. To provide a systematic means for assembling and evaluating such useful informa- tion and to make it available to the entire airport community, the Airport Cooperative Research Program authorized the Transportation Research Board to undertake a continuing project. This project, ACRP Project 11-03, "Synthesis of Information Related to Airport Prac- tices," searches out and synthesizes useful knowledge from all available sources and prepares concise, documented reports on specific topics. Reports from this endeavor constitute an ACRP report series, Synthesis of Airport Practice. This synthesis series reports on current knowledge and practice, in a compact format, with- out the detailed directions usually found in handbooks or design manuals. Each report in the series provides a compendium of the best knowledge available on those measures found to be the most successful in resolving specific problems. PREFACE This report documents energy efficiency improvements being implemented at airports By Gail R. Staba across the country that are low cost and short payback by means of a survey, interviews, Senior Program Officer and a literature review. It targets small airport terminal managers, staff, consultants, and Transportation other stakeholders interested in energy efficiency. Research Board Craig R. Lau, Joel T. Stromgren, and Daniel J. Green, Miller Dunwiddie Architecture, Minneapolis, Minnesota, collected and synthesized the information and wrote the report. The members of the topic panel are acknowledged on the preceding page. This synthesis is an immediately useful document that records the practices that were acceptable within the limitations of the knowledge available at the time of its preparation. As progress in research and practice continues, new knowledge will be added to that now at hand.

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CONTENTS 1 SUMMARY 3 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Audience and Dissemination, 3 Background and Project Scope, 3 Terminology and Key Definitions, 3 Issues Addressed, 3 Report Content, 4 5 CHAPTER TWO PLANNING FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY Energy Efficiency in Airport Planning, 5 Ways to Identify Energy Efficiency Projects, 5 Strategies to Plan Energy Efficiency Projects, 6 Funding Sources for Planning, 8 Planning Strategies Summary, 9 11 CHAPTER THREE ENERGY EFFICIENCY PRACTICES: BACKGROUND AND UTILIZATION Category and Type of Practice, 11 Methods for Utilizing Strategies, 11 Payback, Cost, and Percentage of Improvement, 11 Outline Structure, 12 13 CHAPTER FOUR ENERGY EFFICIENCY PRACTICES: MANAGEMENT AND OPERATIONS Automation and Controls, 13 Operations and Maintenance, 15 22 CHAPTER FIVE ENERGY EFFICIENCY PRACTICES: ENERGY USE AND SYSTEMS Sources, 22 Mechanical Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning, 25 Lighting, 27 Electrical Loads, 29 32 CHAPTER SIX ENERGY EFFICIENCY PRACTICES: CONSERVATION AND BUILDING ENVELOPE Building Envelope, 32 Reflective Materials to Reduce Heat Gain, 32 Glazing Improvements, 32 Insulation Improvements, 32 Air Movement, 33

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35 CHAPTER SEVEN STRATEGIES FOR IMPLEMENTATION Factors That Aid in Implementation of Energy Efficiency Practices, 35 Project Justification, 35 Funding Challenge, 36 38 CHAPTER EIGHT NEW TECHNOLOGIES, INNOVATION, AND LONG-TERM PAYBACK Emerging Technologies, 38 Emerging Project Delivery, 40 Emerging Policy, 41 42 CHAPTER NINE CONCLUSIONS 43 REFERENCES 46 GLOSSARY OF TERMS, ACRONYMS, AND ABBREVIATIONS 48 APPENDIX A METHOD AND SURVEY RESPONSE 50 APPENDIX B AIRPORT ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND COST REDUCTION SURVEY 68 APPENDIX C LIST OF AIRPORTS RESPONDING TO SURVEY 69 APPENDIX D ENERGY EFFICIENCY PRACTICES AND PAYBACK MATRIX