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11 CHAPTER THREE ENERGY EFFICIENCY PRACTICES: BACKGROUND AND UTILIZATION The following three chapters of this report address examples also be a part of any retrofit project and prioritized like any of successful practices to increase airport energy efficiency. other individual retrofit measure when calculating the over- Sub-groupings of practices by operations category and system all project payback period" (Turner et al. 2007, p. 13). Some [envelope, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC), strategies, such as lighting upgrades, may already be part of lighting, etc.] will be described to further break down infor- ongoing maintenance programs. Others may take significant mation and provide background. Discussion and explanation planning before implementation. will elaborate on clear strategies and implementable prac- tices identified during the survey and interview processes and The age of the terminal facility as noted by interviewees literature review. has significant bearing on where improvements make sense. Younger facilities may consider pursuing operations related The terms improvement, strategy, practice, and action are to improvements, whereas older terminals would benefit from used interchangeably throughout the text. All are meant to equipment upgrades or automation. Airport operators can use describe a physical or procedural process that has been doc- this list of practices to initiate discussion with staff and con- umented to affect energy use at airport terminals. sultants, and determine which strategies are most applicable to their facility. CATEGORY AND TYPE OF PRACTICE PAYBACK, COST, AND PERCENTAGE Practices fall into multiple categories, but are grouped by sys- OF IMPROVEMENT tem to provide the most practical reference for facilities man- agers and consultants. Owing to limitations of the survey and Simple payback was found to be a common method of deter- unique conditions at each airport, projects may be retrofit for mining feasibility for energy efficiency projects in initial one facility and new at another. literature reviews and was used as a metric within the air- ports survey. Practices are identified in terms of simple pay- Cost and payback data from the survey lacks precision back time in years and implementation cost relative to total and does not make a distinction between retrofit and new budget. Survey data from small airports were prioritized for each improvement; however, in literature sources it was when available. noted that "[retrofit project] payback periods are generally much longer than the payback periods associated with insti- In an effort to make the survey useful to the consultants tuting energy-related [operations and maintenance] and re- and easy to complete by respondents without excessive commissioning measures, which are often less than 2 years" research or time, project cost was requested relative to over- (Turner et al. 2007, pp. 1112). all budget. Cost can be defined as total project cost and not cost per square foot. Although the precision of this metric may vary METHODS FOR UTILIZING STRATEGIES as the result of wide-ranging airport sizes and diversity of respondents, it was believed to represent a good qualitative Although any strategy could be planned, studied, and imple- assessment of the project by persons with direct and holis- mented as an independent project, most will take place as a tic knowledge of airport operations at their facility. As such, component of a larger investment. When major equipment it is useful information in conjunction with payback. Cost upgrades and other longer payback (10+ years) improvements information is based on energy rates for 2009 at respondent are undertaken it may be worthwhile to group them with short airport locations. payback projects such as lighting retrofits or optimization pro- grams "to help offset initial costs and improve the return on Payback periods are dependent on several factors (from investment" (Turner et al. 2007, p. 13). Turner et al. 2007, p. 13): As supported by one interview respondent and stated in Energy rates previous ACRP research, "enhanced re-commissioning would Hours of operation