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3 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION The report presents analysis and findings from the survey data services for a given amount of energy inputs" (EIADOE and interview summaries collected on airport energy effi- 2003, paragraph 3). For the purposes of this report, inputs ciency practices at small airport terminals. It includes details of are considered to be electricity supplied by a power plant the literature review, a discussion of data and analysis related either within the airport boundary or supplied by a local to topic areas, conclusions drawn from interview data and other utility company and fuel sources used to create electrical information reviewed, as well as a chapter on new technologies energy. and innovation. Simple payback was found to be a common method of determining feasibility for energy efficiency projects in ini- AUDIENCE AND DISSEMINATION tial literature reviews and was used as a metric within the airports survey. Simple payback can be defined as the years This synthesis specifically targets terminal managers and staff required for improvement to return savings equivalent to of small and medium-sized airports. The report seeks to cap- project costs. ture and document successful energy efficiency practices and attempts to quantify relative costs and payback time frames for further reference and planning. The goal of the report is to ISSUES ADDRESSED identify real, implementable actions that will result in reduc- ing energy consuming system costs in small terminals. More than two decades ago, the Bruntland Report, issued by the United Nations, identified buildings and energy efficiency The report is meant to be an easy-to-use reference document as major areas to save energy resources. Today, reports con- for airport terminal managers, operations and maintenance tinue to echo the benefits and potentials of efficiency, includ- (O&M) staff, aviation design consultants, and members of the ing what could be described as its minimal environmental public with an interest in airport terminal energy efficiency. impact and ability to "displace costly and disagreeable energy supplies, enhance security and prosperity, speed global devel- opment, and protect Earth's climate--not at cost but at a profit" BACKGROUND AND PROJECT SCOPE (Lovins 2004, p. 384). Airport terminals use large amounts of energy for lighting, According to Amory Lovins of the National Renewable heating, ventilation, air conditioning, and conveyance sys- Energy Laboratory, "energy efficiency is generally the largest, tems; within the United States, buildings account for 40% of least expensive, most benign, most quickly deployable, least all electrical energy used. Some airport operators have reduced visible, least understood, and most neglected way to provide operating expenses by focusing on energy efficiency, consid- energy services" (Lovins 2004, p. 384). However, it does not ering both energy supply and energy consumption. Some air- receive fair consideration, both in terms of realized savings ports have used terminal roofs or land areas to host alternative and potential. Indeed, "the potential of energy efficiency is energy systems. Many airports have eliminated unnecessary increasing faster through innovative designs, technologies, energy use in airport facilities as a way to reduce operating policies, and marketing methods than it is being used up expenses. This synthesis will focus on selected opportunities through gradual implementation" (Lovins, pp. 384385). by describing successful practices that airports have imple- When understood in this regard, energy efficiency can even mented to increase energy efficiency and reduce operating be considered an untapped "resource" such as solar power, costs at airport terminals. able to increase existing capacity and bank power for future projects. TERMINOLOGY AND KEY DEFINITIONS The focus of this synthesis is on identifying and listing As defined by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)--Energy ways to reduce energy costs at small airports through energy Information Administration (EIA), "an increase in energy efficiency. Specifically, the survey, literature review, and inter- efficiency is when either energy inputs are reduced for a views focus on the following categories and subcategories given level of service, or there are increased or enhanced developed by the synthesis team: