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33 footprints, the primary surface that can benefit from added or out major renovations. Of all the envelope strategies noted improved insulation is the terminal roof (Seidenman and in this chapter, "reducing outside air infiltration into the build- Spanovich 2008). ing by improving building envelope tightness" may be the most feasible (DOE 2009a). Primary methods of reducing Many airports use high-performance, low-slope roofs with air infiltration include closure of envelope penetrations and long life spans. Building energy code requirements for roofing controlling doors and openings. insulation have most likely changed since the last time a ter- minals roof was replaced and increasing insulation R-values may be required. Reducing Infiltration and Loss One airport noted that a variety of security, communications, Roofing Replacement and data equipment attached to or located on the exterior of their building had led to multiple penetrations through the Roofing replacement cost for buildings the size of airport envelope that wasted energy. By sealing these openings, terminals can be significant and varied owing to a wide range energy savings were expected. Payback periods of 2 to 5 years of factors; however, extra insulation can often be added with medium costs were noted at Newark Liberty Inter- with little difficulty (DOE 2009a). Survey respondents who national Airport (EWR) for this improvement. have completed re-roofing projects with increased or high- performance insulation noted a payback of 2 to 5 years and medium cost. Controlling Doors and Openings Multiple respondents noted the utilization of high-speed, roll- Super Insulation up doors at high traffic openings such as baggage handling areas to reduce heat loss and manage interior temperatures. One insulation strategy for increased energy efficiency is to Respondents noted a payback of 0 to 5 years and a medium provide greater levels of insulation than required by build- cost to implement opening improvements. ing codes. Called "super insulation," R-values are often double typical specifications for a given region. This strategy serves to buffer the building from outside temperature swings and Chapter Summary maintain interior temperatures for a longer period of time. Survey data show a limited response, with those using this The following practices were identified within the literature strategy being located in southern or far northern climates, and survey data as building envelope improvements that reduce seeking to reduce heat gain or heat loss. Recent improve- energy costs and improve energy efficiency within small air- ments at Juneau International Airport (JNU) include a "high- port terminal buildings (see Table 3). performance" envelope with an insulation R-value of 50 as part of a renovation and replacement of a 25-year-old roof Reduce solar heat gain and lower cooling loads by (Martin 2009). Payback periods of 2 to 5 years with medium increasing reflectivity of exterior surfaces. costs were noted for super insulation practices. Utilize window films or other retrofit shade devices to reduce solar heat gain and improve occupant comfort. AIR MOVEMENT Take advantage of infrequent roof replacement by increasing levels of insulation. At existing facilities, airport staff and consultants have a lim- Monitor and manage exterior openings to reduce air ited ability to modify many of the envelope components with- movement and heating or cooling energy losses.

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34 TABLE 3 ENERGY EFFICIENCY PRACTICES--CONSERVATION AND BUILDING ENVELOPE *Notes: 1. Payback--time indicated refers to years required for improvement to return cost savings equivalent to project costs. 2. Cost information is based on energy rates for 2009 at respondent airport locations. 3. Cost can be defined as total project cost and not cost per square foot. 4. Percentage--value given represents a yearly reduction in energy or operations costs for that system or process.