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35 CHAPTER SEVEN STRATEGIES FOR IMPLEMENTATION FACTORS THAT AID IN IMPLEMENTATION Highlight Value OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY PRACTICES A key implementation strategy noted by one major airport Economics is to acknowledge and highlight the "multiple value streams," including economic, environmental, and operational, that When asked to identify factors that have aided in the imple- accrue with energy efficiency projects when presenting mentation of energy efficiency projects, funding, especially programs and improvements to airport staff and other that outside the regular budget, was noted as primary, espe- stakeholders. cially at smaller airports responding to the survey. General economic factors related to escalating operation costs also have increased support for energy efficiency projects and Designate Energy Efficiency Advocates caused airline tenants to "aggressively support investments that reduce operating costs," noted one airport manager. Unique factors that have improved energy efficiency project By leveraging this growing demand in support of energy success at large airports, including TPA, MSP, and DFW, efficiency projects, an airport may be able to increase the include special programs focused on sustainability and goal scope of a project, make the project more competitive within setting processes. a state or federal grant process, and/or find broad support for improvements within the airport administration. To ensure that building systems operate as specified and designed, a commissioning framework and "energy advocate" or committee should be present in early phases of the design Staff Behavior process (CAP 2003b, p. 9) and throughout project bidding and implementation. One interviewee noted that this strat- Other, less economically focused factors such as staff behav- egy helps avoid "value-engineering" out energy saving design ior and general social attitudes toward sustainability also strategies to reduce project development costs at the expense play a role in the success of an energy efficiency project. of increased operations costs. With more focused attention on sustainability issues within the last decade and the documented impacts by airplanes Dedicated Energy Managers on carbon emissions, energy efficiency projects have ben- efited over other capital projects owing to their greater Although the management of energy systems at smaller air- value. Staff behavior has most certainly been affected as ports is usually very limited (with most responsibilities falling well, with Americans overall being more conscious of sus- on the airport manager), dedicating staff time to monitor- tainability within their workplace. Although less quantifi- ing energy use can provide aid in implementation by col- able, modifications to staff behavior could be assumed to lecting accurate data for future energy efficiency projects and be low cost and high value. ensuring that equipment is performing at optimal efficiency. A majority of airports surveyed do not dedicate full-time Technology and Design staffing toward energy management, even at larger facili- ties; however, energy management is often under the purview A third major category of factors aiding in implementation of airport staff. are those associated with technology or design. As noted in the planning section, by considering energy efficiency in the PROJECT JUSTIFICATION design of every capital project and within operations, the need to retrofit is eliminated or reduced and payback can be fully Justification for energy efficiency projects is often a challenge evaluated before expenditure. With major mechanical or owing to a number of factors. Each project and airport termi- electrical system upgrades, evaluation of efficiency is prin- nal is unique, with variable fuel and electrical costs, climate, ciple to the project and, as such, generally brings low addi- building size, mechanical and electrical systems, etc. These tional design cost. factors, coupled with limited data about energy efficiency