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40 combs, and capillary tubes located between glazing panes. These materials provide diffuse light, not a clear view" [Center for Sustainable Building Research-- University of Minnesota (CSBR-UMN) 2007]. Dynamic "Smart" Windows--"These facade systems include switchable windows and shading systems such as motorized shades, switchable electrochromic or gaso- chromic window coatings, and double-envelope window- wall systems that have variable optical and thermal properties that can be changed in response to climate, occupant preferences and building system requirements" (CSBR-UMN 2007). Building Integrated Photovoltaics--"Photovoltaic vision glass integrates a thin-film, semitransparent photovoltaic panel with an exterior glass panel in an otherwise tradi- tional double-pane window or skylight" (CSBR-UMN 2007). "Green" or Renewable Power Two survey respondents indicated that renewable power was purchased by the airport in substitution for carbon-based power. This arrangement may reduce utility costs during peak periods and supports greater investment by utilities in renew- able power systems. FIGURE 14 Micro scale wind turbines. Parapet mounted EMERGING PROJECT DELIVERY turbines mounted on the airport fire station at MSP. As energy efficiency and sustainable design become more (usually water) that is then used for heating or cooling energy integrated into new and existing buildings, project delivery during peak times. A second method of peak shifting involves methods are adapting to accommodate the added complexity switching power generation to on-site diesel or natural gas of energy systems and building management. powered generators or PV arrays, which reduces demand for utility-provided power. If generators are used, local air qual- ity may be affected. Integrated Design and Building Simulation Considerable cost savings can be realized with thermal Integrated design is a departure from typical design and storage technology if utility rate schedules have penalties for construction processes that brings disciplines together early high peak electrical demand (Turner et al. 2007, p. 12). Ther- in the process, holistically evaluating the design in terms of mal storage retrofits have an estimated payback of 3 to 10 years energy performance and other factors. It can "enhance air (Turner et al. 2007, p. 14). quality, lighting, thermal environment and other key aspects of a building's indoor environment" (Griffith et al. 2007, p. 9). The integrated team requires collaboration between Windows all stakeholders. Future window technologies will continue to improve the insu- lating properties of window systems and increase the respon- "The expansion of the `efficiency resource' is also accel- siveness of building envelopes to daily changing climatic erating as designers realize that whole-system design inte- conditions. gration can often make very large (one or two order-of- magnitude) energy savings cost less than small or no savings, Ways that windows may continue to contribute to build- and as energy-saving technologies evolve discontinuously ing energy efficiency include: rather than incrementally. Similarly, rapid evolution and enor- mous potential apply to ways to market and deliver energy- Insulation Filled Glazing--"There are several options saving technologies and designs; research and development for highly insulating windows with aerogel, honey- can accelerate both" (Lovins 2004, pp. 384385).