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42 CHAPTER NINE CONCLUSIONS The survey responses revealed that all airport terminals Major reductions to energy expenses were found through had implemented at least one type of low/no-cost energy effi- retrofit of mechanical and lighting systems when these criti- ciency improvement, usually focused on operations or lighting cal functions were replaced, upgraded, or re-commissioned retrofits. with new controls and building automation. Planning for energy efficiency improvements can be a com- Funding was identified as the major barrier to implemen- plex task, especially for terminal managers at smaller airports. tation of energy efficiency improvements for all respondents. By embedding energy efficiency goals within long-range plans Tactics for funding and implementation for those airports that or creating efficiency programs within operations or devel- have successfully reduced energy costs varied. With their opment departments, airport stakeholders can ensure that all limited funding resources, small airports may first work to projects consider energy efficiency. Other practices cited for include energy efficiency into O&M programs and lighting planning energy efficiency improvements include: systems. Another way to leverage energy efficiency dollars is by partnering with other existing county or city projects Searching out other airport managers, consultants, local and utility companies. ordinances, and utility programs, as well as national stan- dards as knowledge resources for planning energy effi- Major airports have the scale, budget, and staff complexity ciency projects. to test energy efficiency operations and retrofit projects and Utilizing utility grants and consultant contracts to perform may be used as a reference for smaller airports. Communica- audits and feasibility analysis. tion within and between airports is strongly encouraged. Focusing limited budgets with phased implementation or departmental prioritization. Local utility companies have assisted airport operators Testing small-scale projects for larger-scale imple- in reducing energy costs by conducting no-cost or low-cost mentation. energy audits and by providing grants or rebates for demon- Enforcing efficiency with tenant and airport design stration projects or energy efficiency upgrades. Positive part- standards. nerships with utility companies were noted by many respon- Grouping projects with short- and long-term payback to dents as an important part of an energy efficiency plan. Many use early cost savings as support for other investments. Considering airport terminal energy efficiency projects of these utility incentives along with government incentives in a holistic manner and seeking out synergies between can be found in one location--The Database of State Incentives improvements. for Renewable and Efficiencies (http://www.dsireusa.org/ summarytables/finee.cfm). Data collection is paramount to most improvements and without an energy audit, or other building baseline information, Airports are positioned to utilize renewable energy technol- determining where energy efficiency projects will have the ogy as a result of their high roof surface area and relationship greatest impact on energy costs is challenging. Automation with utility companies as major users of energy. systems provide an invaluable mechanism to monitor trends and payback information for use in additional energy effi- An important observation that must be understood con- ciency projects. cerning the entirety of this report is that the diversity of strategies and relative costs noted in the survey response Operations and maintenance (O&M) practices have asserts that no two airports are equal, nor will they benefit received considerable attention in many reports and best the same from any improvement. The best reference for an practices manuals. These data reinforce both the rapid sav- airport terminal can be found in baseline conditions that ings benefit and ease of implementation that have previously exist today on site. been attributed to O&M energy efficiency practices and out- lines practices such as commissioning, maintenance sched- No further research is identified at this time other than mon- uling, staff behavior, and intra-airport communication as itoring airport energy efficiency improvements and updating keys to successful energy cost reduction. synthesis of practice as new tools or regulations warrant.