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46 GLOSSARY OF TERMS, ACRONYMS, AND ABBREVIATIONS TERMS tenance, and operational behavior will have on energy efficiency measures. Advanced meters--those that have the capability to mea- O&M assessment--systematic method for identifying ways sure and record interval data (at least hourly for electric- to optimize the performance of an existing building. This ity), and communicate the data to a remote location in assessment involves gathering, analyzing, and presenting a format that can be easily integrated into an advanced information based on the building owner or manager's metering system. EPAct Section 103 requires at least daily requirements. data-collection capability (Sullivan et al. 2007, p. 2.1). O&M consultant--consultant who is hired by the build- Boardings--see enplanements ing owner to assist with an O&M assessment or retro- Commissioning--according to ASHRAE Guideline 1-1996, commissioning in a management or oversight role. This the process of ensuring that new systems are designed, consultant guides the owner through development and dis- installed, functionally tested, and capable of being oper- tribution of a Request for Proposal, through commission- ated and maintained to perform in conformity with the ing provider selection, and possibly assists in creating a design intent. program for retro-commissioning implementation at all Datalogger--a stand-alone, electronic data gathering device owner facilities. that uses sensors to collect equipment information over Payback--length of time that an energy efficiency improve- time. Data collected could include temperature, pressure, ment will take to provide the full return on investment. For current, humidity, or other operational information. example, if a $1,000 investment will yield $1,000 in energy Diagnostic monitoring--practice of collecting data on or maintenance savings by the end of the first year, that equipment operation over a period of time for the purpose investment has a 1-year payback. of assessing the equipment performance. These data may Peak electrical demand--peak electrical demand is the max- be obtained through a datalogger or an energy management imum instantaneous load or the maximum average load system. These data may consist of time-series or change- over a designated interval of time, usually 15 or 30 min of-value data that can be collected for digital points such measured by meter by the utility or power provider. Also as temperature, pressure, or status. known as peak power. Energy assessment--combined evaluation of equipment and operations; investigation of systems in existing build- Peak load shedding--defers system loads from peak periods ings with the goal of replacing or retrofitting equipment. to periods of low demand. The result is a flattening of the This is a quick process that may include building simula- system load schedule, thus decreasing demand charges from tion and results in a list of energy conservation measures the electric utility. Design strategies that reduce the peak that involve significant capital investment. load are often referred to as "peak shaving." Energy audit--investigation of systems in existing build- Preventive maintenance program--program that is imple- ings with the goal of replacing or retrofitting equipment. mented to address equipment maintenance issues pro- This is a quick process that may include building simula- actively. The goal of such a program is to perform main- tion and results in a list of energy conservation measures tenance tasks on a regular schedule so as to maximize the that involve significant capital investment. operational efficiency and lifetime of the equipment. Energy Management System--automatic system used for Real-time pricing--energy prices that are set for a specific controlling equipment in a building. Most likely this will time period on an advance or forward basis and that may be a computer-based system, including either pneumatic change according to price changes in the generation spot or digital components, or both. market. Prices paid for energy consumed during these Enplanements--domestic, territorial, and international periods are typically established and known to consumers revenue passengers who board an aircraft in the states in a day ahead ("day-ahead pricing") or an hour ahead ("hour- scheduled and nonscheduled service of aircraft in intra- ahead pricing") in advance of such consumption, allow- state, interstate, and foreign commerce and includes in- ing them to vary their demand and usage in response to such transit passengers (passengers on board international flights prices and manage their energy costs by shifting usage that transit an airport in the United States for non-traffic to a lower cost period, or reducing consumption overall purposes). (Sullivan et al. 2007). Heat gain--increase of heat within a given space as a result Retro-commissioning--for an existing building, the process of direct heating by solar radiation and of heat radiated by of assessing, analyzing, and upgrading its operational per- other sources such as lights, equipment, or people. formance. A preliminary step in the retro-commissioning Investment grade audit--audit that incorporates the aspects process is the O&M assessment. Retro-commissioning of a traditional energy audit plus a risk assessment that usually results in a number of low-cost or no-cost activities evaluates the impact that occupancy, management, main- that save energy while maintaining or improving comfort.
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47 Solar heat gain--increase of heat within a given space as a HVAC Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning result of direct heating by solar radiation. IMACS Intelligent Monitoring and Control System Time-of-use pricing--energy prices that are set for a spe- LCD Liquid crystal display cific time period on an advance or forward basis, typically LED Light-emitting diode not changing more often than twice a year (summer and LEED© Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design winter season). Prices paid for energy consumed during MAC Metropolitan Airports Commission these periods are pre-established and known to customers MECP MAC Energy Conservation Program in advance of such consumption, allowing them to vary MSP MinneapolisSt. Paul International Airport their demand and usage in response to such prices and NREL National Renewable Energy Laboratory (U.S. manage their energy costs by shifting usage to a lower-cost Department of Energy) period, or reducing consumption overall. The time periods O&M Operation and maintenance are pre-established, typically include from two to no more OABA Open Architecture Building Automation than four periods per day, and do not vary in start or stop PECI Portland Energy Conservation, Inc. times (Sullivan et al. 2007). PV Photovoltaics Trend log--log of data that is collected through an energy ROI Return on Investment management system. These data may consist of time-series RTU Roof-top units or change-of-value data that can be collected for digital SAGA Sustainable Aviation Guidance Alliance points such as temperature, pressure, or status. SCADA Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition Value commissioning--focus on the most frequently avail- SeaTac SeattleTacoma International Airport able re-commissioning/retro-commissioning opportunities VAV Variable air volume with the highest payback as a part of daily O&M (Sullivan VFD Variable frequency drive et al. 2004). ZEB Zero energy buildings ACRONYMS ABBREVIATIONS ACEEE American Council for an Energy-Efficient ft foot Economy g gram AIP Airport Improvement Program h hour ASHRAE American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and in. inch Air Conditioning Engineers km kilometer BAS Building automation system kW kilowatt BCS Building control systems L liter CIP Capital Improvement Plan lb pound CFL Compact fluorescent light mg milligram CRT Cathode ray tube mi mile DFW Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport min minute EMCS Energy Management Control System mL milliliter EPACT Energy Policy Act s second ESCO Energy Service Company ft2 square foot HID High intensity discharge yd yard