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5 CHAPTER TWO PLANNING FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY This synthesis identifies practices and improvements that Collect and Analyze Data with Audits and Meters have been implemented and documented at airport termi- nals of varying size with a goal of reducing energy costs by One of the most basic methods of gathering data about energy means of energy efficiency. Before implementation of any use is to perform an energy audit. Utility companies and program or project, studies and decisions are required to energy service companies (ESCOs) offer many different types determine the scope of the project, the cost of the project, of audits. Most are no-to-low cost. Respondents suggested funding sources, and potential payback or rebates. For the contacting the local utility company to determine the best purposes of this report, these decisions are grouped under audit method for a given facility. Airport staff or energy con- the term "planning." sultants can also perform audits. Audit types vary in scope and are typically dependent on facility type, size, and loca- This chapter discusses key planning and facility evaluation tion. They can be done on existing and planned facilities. methods identified by respondents that are important to the Existing buildings can receive a re-commissioning or retro- successful design, funding, and implementation of energy commissioning audit to identify ways to save energy and efficiency practices. reduce costs. Audit data also provide accountability to fund- ing agencies and show money well spent or where design/ ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN AIRPORT PLANNING construction fell short of promises by validating equipment performance. Nearly one half of survey respondents reported With energy as a significant percentage of yearly costs for using audits for improvement identification. most airports (usually 10% to 15% of the total operating budget), efficiency is identified as a high priority by respon- Perform an Operations Assessment dents in current long-range plans. Based on survey results, many terminals are planning for energy improvements by In addition to gathering quantitative data, literature sources sug- including retrofits or upgrades in long-range plans whereas gest that an O&M assessment be performed to identify opti- others work to save energy through energy audits and ongo- mization practices. These practices are potentially lower cost ing O&M plans. Literature sources also noted that it is impor- than retrofits identified by an audit (PECI 1999b, pp. 45). tant that strategic business plans include goals for efficient building operation as a part of asset management [Portland Energy Conservation, Inc. (PECI) 1999a, p. 3]. Box 1 Audit vs. Assessment Audits typically refer to the analysis of the energy used by Plans can consider efficiency projects of all scales, costs, existing equipment over a period of time, often resulting in and paybacks to leverage investment. Although this report technological solutions to save energy. primarily addresses short payback, low-cost improvements, it is important to note that major, infrequent retrofit projects Assessments focus on the evaluation of operations programs such as air handlers and boilers can also bring dramatic cost and procedures to identify low-cost improvements. savings. WEBLINK--CONSERVATION TIPS WAYS TO IDENTIFY ENERGY Simple Steps to Conserve From the DOE EFFICIENCY PROJECTS http://www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/services/ O&M is a primary and cost-effective way airports can identify energy_aware_oec.html areas for energy efficiency improvements; however, commis- sioning and energy audits by local utilities also play a major Review Energy Bills role. A key to identifying where improvements are necessary or will be most effective is to collect and analyze data about Analysis of existing electrical, gas, and water meter data airport systems. and billing reports can also identify anomalies and assist in