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6 calculating project payback. By reviewing billing history, Use Existing Standards to Guide yearly escalation costs per unit of energy, which for some air- Energy Efficient Design ports has exceeded 10% for natural gas, can be determined and applied to payback analysis, potentially shortening the A useful resource for determining energy use targets are the payback term. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Con- dition Engineers (ASHRAE) and Illuminating Engineering Recent literature relating to metering best practices iden- Society standards such as ASHRA 55-2004, which in part tify two methods of utilizing meter data called "efficiency establishes indoor temperature levels for comfort. Other opportunity identification" and "operational opportunity iden- national standards and quasi-public sustainability rating sys- tification" (Sullivan et al. 2007, pp. 7.77.8). Efficiency oppor- tems such as the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC), tunity identification seeks to highlight variations in meter Leadership Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) pro- data for additional analysis, trending, and precision monitor- gram provides detailed high-performance building require- ing using portable means such as data loggers. Operational ments and often strategies for achieving those requirements. opportunity identification is described as "tuning" the build- ing by comparing meter data with existing system parameters and settings to highlight failed, by-passed, disconnected, or Box 2 Leadership Energy Environmental Design LEED defeated energy efficiency measures (Sullivan et al. 2007, Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) is pp. 7.77.8). See chapter four for additional discussion of a point based system of evaluating, rating, and certifying sus- audits and meters. tainability in new and existing buildings. When a building is documented in compliance with the LEED guidelines it can be identified as LEED Certified. Start Early The rating system and certification is administered by the Another tactic for identifying strategies is to begin thinking U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC)--a non-profit cor- about efficiency early in any project. Integrating energy effi- poration promoting sustainable building design. ciency criteria into Pre-Design or Schematic Design phases of terminal projects through a design basis memorandum con- Achieving certification for a building requires registration with tinues the commitments to efficiency established in long-range the USGBC and documentation of sustainability strategies plans [Clean Airport Partnership, Inc. (CAP) 2003, p. 6]. within a prescriptive point system. Many points concern In addition to specifically noting efficiency, the memoran- energy efficiency and involve mechanical or electrical systems dum can reference commissioning and adequate funding and and occupant comfort. Handbooks and other resources for the time for efficiency upgrades. When integrated into a project LEED program include documented strategies for achieving at the earliest phase, there is also less chance of resistance points toward certification. LEED does not specifically cover to improvements because many design criteria are just being airport terminals. established. Because many smaller airport terminals function like small to mid-sized office buildings, strategies within LEED proposed Reach for "Low Hanging Fruit" for commercial construction offer an excellent resource for planning energy efficiency projects. This metaphor for seeking projects that are easy to achieve was Specific practices cited within this report that contribute to seen by many respondents as a way to initiate cost-effective LEED points include: energy efficiency projects when resources are limited. One airport indicated that any improvement that qualifies for grants, On-site or off-site renewable energy rebates, or other assistance from the utility company is given System level metering highest priority. What is critical to this strategy is to select (U.S. Green Building Council 2008). projects with "net incremental expenses repaid through energy savings (or rebates) and then quantifying the projected energy savings" such that the programs receive appropriate political WEBLINK--USGBC LEED attention and "aggressive but achievable conservation targets" are set (CAP 2003b, p. 8). More information about the LEED Program: Leverage Commissioning Efforts STRATEGIES TO PLAN ENERGY Interview comments by a consulting mechanical engineer indi- EFFICIENCY PROJECTS cated that when retrofit projects are commissioned, support- ing equipment, ducting, or sensors are often found to be out of Small airports with limited budgets are often unable to dedi- specification or in need of replacement. cate funds to efficiency planning because of basic operational

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7 needs. The following section documents resources or strate- have implemented successful energy efficiency programs gies that may assist in planning for projects. (CAP 2003b). Ensure Success--Incorporate Improvements Designate an Energy Advocate(s) on Project Teams into Projects and Plans As a strategy to reduce the vulnerability of energy efficiency After identification of improvements or development of strate- measures to "value engineering" within larger projects, inter- gies, incorporation of those improvements into individual proj- viewees suggested designating an energy advocate or panel to ects, O&M, airport budgets, and long-range plans will ensure support and monitor energy efficiency aspects of the project improvements become reality. Some respondents noted the through all phases of design and construction (CAP 2003b). most success by including energy efficiency in the design of individual projects, whereas others incorporate energy efficiency into general or capital improvement budgets and Pass it on--Generate Tenant Improvement long-range plans. Considering energy efficiency in long-range Planning Standards plans and general budgets will ensure consistent attention Renovation or tenant improvements within the airport termi- and funding and provide building data to justify additional nal can be a way to reduce energy use and test practices for improvements. larger scale implementation. Providing proscriptive guidelines or standards for tenants allows the facility management to At a minimum, energy efficiency projects included within control and monitor improvements when O&M compo- the budget can be implemented more successfully when proj- nents are limited in airline leases or when tenants demand ects can be broken down into phases, incremental steps, or by funding allocation for specific departments within the terminal/ quick return on investments (CAP 2003a, p. 3). Examples airport budget. range from simply specifying ENERGY STAR compliant products as a part of the project to writing facility-specific (and usually more restrictive) energy codes or "LEED" Energy Management Plan style standards. Customized standards developed with staff and consultant input can apply to many technical aspects of In addition to typical plans and planning processes, a number a project but may, at a minimum, apply to mechanical and of larger airports have dedicated energy management plans. A electrical systems. comprehensive energy management plan can describe energy efficiency measures to implement, promoting those measures with the highest rate of return and energy savings that will Future Proofing meet the facility's specific operational needs. Small airport An effective method of planning for energy efficiency noted operators might also consider dedicated management plans as by interviewees is to think ahead in anticipation of future tech- a component of operational plans to be prepared for funding nologies or changes in fuel or energy supply and integrate sup- opportunities. port systems into current projects. Known as "future-proofing," investments in the form of an additional conduit under pave- Test-Drive Strategies with Demonstration Projects ments, heavier roof structure for photovoltaic (PV) panels, or larger mechanical rooms could reduce the cost of future retro- One unique planning concept noted by larger airport respon- fits or new projects (EPA and DOE n.d.a). dents, including Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport (DFW) and MinneapolisSt. Paul International Airport (MSP) Seek Out Existing Documents and Programs is the use of demonstration projects. These tests often are ini- tiated with vendor support and allow airports to evaluate new When planning for energy efficiency projects and programs, technologies before large-scale implementation and to secure a wide variety of documents and resources can be consulted. other funding sources. This proofing is a challenge for small Many smaller airports surveyed rely on other airport managers terminals, but can be used where opportunities are presented. and consultants for information and data, whereas larger air- Larger airport demonstration projects are a resource that can ports seek information from multiple sources including local be shared with all airports. and regional codes, sustainable building rating systems, con- sultants, and utility company programs. Look to Other Terminals in Your Region for Practices Over the last decade, sustainability trends within commer- cial construction and real estate, as well as public and govern- Comparing energy use at contemporary airport terminals with ment construction, have led to greater accessibility to energy similar space programs, climates, and building areas may help efficiency strategies for airport managers and consultants. to establish energy efficiency goals, especially if those airports Some programs, such as the EPA/DOE ENERGY STAR