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11 In Challenges in Staffing, Furchtgott-Roth hypothesizes steady hours. Any job that asks for more than they are willing that changing demographics, workforce readiness, and global to give in time will probably not be kept (22). competition will continue to create staffing obstacles and Staffing is expected to increase in sectors that cater to the opportunities for organizations. The aging of the workforce older generation. Furchtgott-Roth suggests that to meet the is one of the major issues the author identifies as potentially challenges of the next decade, organizations need to expand problematic. The proportion of Americans over age 55 will the flexibility of labor markets: make the workforce more increase significantly along with increases in longevity, thus attractive to senior citizens by allowing employers to offer increasing the proportion of older Americans. The labor force part-time work without tax penalties and fixed costs; increase participation of older Americans is increasing with older the mobility of the workforce by providing defined contribu- employees working full-time weekly schedules (21). Indeed, tion benefit plans. These tactics help pension portability for according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), as cited by employees who can take plans with them and ease the finan- Burkert in his 2006 study, by 2012 the availability of older cial burden of company-sponsored pensions (21). workers will increase by 56% (22). Still, younger employees can also make up an important Research by the Society for Human Resources Management piece of transit staffing. In Business Insurance magazine, Fletcher (SHRM), the international human resources trade organiza- reports that "experts consider helping [young] workers balance tion, also cites the aging of the workforce as one of the three key the demands of work and life vital to recruiting and retaining trends that are shaping organizations today. Projected labor young employees" (24). According to Fletcher, Deloitte and shortages and baby boomers continuing to work beyond the Touche USA L.L.P. found that members of the younger work- retirement age are other key factors. It is projected that approx- force share the following workforce characteristics: imately 20% of the workforce will be 55 years or older by 2010. Research reveals that traditional retirement has become the Value empowerment/excitement and are idealistic, exception and not the rule. Additionally, the BLS, as referenced Are more loyal to one employer than Generation X, if they by Burkert in 2006, predicts that by 2012, the labor force will can have multiple experiences there, decline in younger age groups, while the availability of older Value open social networks that embrace honest commu- workers will increase dramatically; this indicates that compa- nication, and nies must attract older workers to stay adequately staffed (22). See technology as a way of life (24). Mature workers can play a key role in transferring organi- zational knowledge and essential skills to less experienced Also of note is the increasingly large role immigrants are employees. Organizations can leverage this knowledge by playing in the transportation industry. In his study The Chang- promoting internal knowledge transfer and intergenerational ing Face of Taxi and Limousine Drivers, Schaller compiled sta- learning. Failure to understand generational differences and tistics provided by the U.S. Census Bureau for the past four align workplace policies to generational needs can negatively impact retention and productivity. Research by SHRM led census periods. Schaller found that, in the year 2000, 38% of authors to hypothesize that relationship fit is the primary U.S. taxi and limo drivers were immigrants, up from 8% in need driving the level of job satisfaction of mature workers. 1970 and 27% in 1990. Schaller calls this "one of the highest Organizations that want to stay competitive must adapt their proportions of immigrant workers of any occupation in the talent management practices in line with the shifting demo- U.S." (25). graphics of today's labor pool (23). To retain mature workers, employers must offer work Impact of Management Characteristics arrangements and benefits that align with the needs of this and Practices labor pool. Incentives to retain mature workers include flex- ible work arrangements (e.g., telecommuting, compressed TCRP Synthesis 71: Paratransit Manager's Skills, Qualifica- work weeks), training to upgrade skills, time off for volun- tions, and Needs, focuses on the characteristics of successful teerism, phased retirement, reduced shift work mentoring paratransit managers. In a survey of paratransit managers arrangements, and consulting positions. These workers throughout the nation, respondents noted that a strong team have substantial experience that can be used with the aid of of operators and dispatchers is the backbone of paratransit part-time, comp-time, and telecommuting policies. A study operations. Respondents cited the importance of managers to conducted by Ernst & Young found that hiring retirees as know and develop their staffs and to maintain a supportive contractors or having an on-call pool of retirees had the high- employment culture. According to these paratransit profes- est impact on the retention of mature workers (23). sionals, attention to these factors will allow the managers to Burkert hypothesized that mature workers enter or return spend less time on managing staff and hiring and training to the workforce seeking more than just wages, stability or replacements. Good communication and delivering good