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28 Private Providers 100% Public Transit Agencies 90% Average Training Completion Rate Among all Providers: 66 Percent 80% Average Training Completion Rate for Private Providers: 60 Percent 70% Average Training Completion Rate for Public Transit Agencies: 77 Percent 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Figure 3-5. Training completion rates for public and private paratransit operators. 12 months. An annual turnover rate for vehicle operators was by managers/schedulers as needed." Figure 3-7 shows the then calculated. Reported annual turnover rates are shown on responses to this question. Figure 3-6. Again, rates reported by public entities are shown As shown in Figure 3-7, most ADA paratransit vehicle in black and rates for private companies in gray. Note that operators pick work shifts based on seniority. This is the case all five of the systems that indicated no turnover in the past in 55 of the 68 systems (81%) that responded to the question 12 months were public entities. about how paratransit work is assigned. In 13 systems (19%), Sixty-three respondents provided the information used in managers and schedulers assign work to operators as needed. Figure 3-6--23 public entities and 40 private companies. Over- No systems indicated that vehicle operators are hired for spe- all, the 63 respondents indicated an annual post-training ADA cific work shifts. One private company indicated "Other" and paratransit vehicle operator turnover rate of 27%. For public noted that work is assigned in all three ways, with some work entities, the average annual turnover rate was 14%. For private selected based on seniority, some assigned by managers/ contractors, the average annual turnover rate was 30%. schedulers as needed, and some vehicle operators hired for specific shifts. Work Assignments Use of Split Shifts Respondents who indicated that they provided ADA para- transit services directly were asked to indicate how paratran- In order to efficiently provide capacity only during morn- sit work was assigned to vehicle operators. Three choices were ing and afternoon peak periods, some transit agencies use split provided as well as an "Other" response where another method shifts. Operators are asked to work several hours through the could be described. The three provided choices were: "Vehi- morning peak period, take a 2-3 hour unpaid break during the cle operators pick work shifts based on seniority," "Vehicle middle of the day, and then work for several hours through operators are hired for a specific work shift and the shift does the afternoon peak. This practice of using split shifts is used not vary," and "Vehicle operators are assigned work shifts for both fixed-route and paratransit services. It sometimes is

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29 100% Private Providers Public Transit Agencies 90% 80% Average Turnover Rate Among Private Providers: 30 Percent 70% Average Turnover Rate Among Public Transit Agencies: 14 Percent 60% 50% 40% Average Turnover Rate Among all Providers: 27 Percent 30% 20% 10% 0% Figure 3-6. Annual ADA paratransit vehicle operator turnover rates. not popular with vehicle operators, and excessive use of split ators if they indicated that they directly operated both types shifts could affect job satisfaction and retention. of services. Table 3-2 summarizes the responses received. Survey respondents were asked to indicate what percent- A total of 67 respondents provided this information. This age of ADA paratransit vehicle operators were asked to work included 24 public systems that operate services directly and split shifts. They were also asked to indicate if these operators 43 private contractors. Twenty of the public agencies indi- were full-time or part-time employees. Finally, they were cated that they operate both ADA paratransit and fixed-route asked for similar information about fixed-route vehicle oper- services and four provide just ADA paratransit service. Ten of Vehicle operators pick 55 work shift based on 33 seniority 22 0 Operators hired for 0 specific work shifts 0 Work shifts assigned by 13 managers/schedulers as 8 needed 5 1 Other 1 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Total Private contractors Public agencies Figure 3-7. How paratransit work is assigned.