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50 granted. The lack of map reading skills was cited as one of the Performance main reasons that trainees fail in the training process, are ter- minated, or become frustrated with the job and leave. Job Satisfaction Retention Supportive Work Competitive Wages "The Right" Employees Training and Tools Environment To attract applicants who will eventually become successful, Figure 4-1. The "performance pyramid." experienced, productive, and long-term vehicle operators, a competitive wage must be offered. While there are many things that prospective recruits consider when deciding to apply for and qualities that recruits will bring to the job. Two of the and accepting a job as a vehicle operator, the wages offered more important skills and qualities are the following: where ranked by all who offered input as one of the most important. Without competitive wages, organizations are likely A customer service attitude, and to attract a more transient workforce that is interested in any Spatial orientation and map reading skills. job, rather than more experienced and skilled individuals, or quality individuals with a good customer service attitude who Given the level of interaction between ADA paratransit vehi- are interested in being ADA paratransit vehicle operators. cle operators and riders, it is vital that individuals recruited When the demands of the job become known, more transient for these positions possess a customer service attitude or good applicants are then much more likely to not complete training "people skills." It is important to recruit beyond just individu- or to leave as soon as a better paying job becomes available. als with experience driving buses, taxis, or other types of vehi- Low pay in current ADA paratransit operations was cited as cles. The proper attitude must be given equal consideration. a major factor in low training completion rates. Low pay was Some systems that offered input on this topic indicated that also cited by focus group participants and survey respondents they find it more successful to "hire individuals with the right as the main reason for high turnover. attitude and provide training as a vehicle operator" than to hire In establishing a competitive rate, several external factors "an experienced vehicle operator and try to train them to have must be considered. The first is the overall job market. Dur- the right attitude." The ideal recruit will possess both types of ing times of lower unemployment, it may become necessary qualities and skills. to offer higher wages or other benefits and incentives to The literature search found that focusing on hiring the attract quality candidates. Wages offered by other transporta- "right person" was also successful and espoused in other indus- tion companies in the area must also be considered. Once tries. In the trucking industry, case studies indicated that some individuals are fully trained, they can easily move between successful companies "hire persons with good attitudes and service providers in the area. This is particularly true if they trained those individuals to drive" rather than focusing on hir- have Commercial Drivers Licenses or obtain them as part of ing experienced operators from other companies. their training. Many systems and individuals also noted the importance of The research also indicated that it is important to match the finding individuals who have good spatial orientation and wage that is offered to the requirements of the job. It is impor- who understand how to read maps. This skill is often taken for tant to not just provide a competitive "driver" wage but to offer Internal Factors External Factors Defining "The Right" Employees Overall Job Market Wages Offered Compensation Offered by Competitors for Same Fringe Benefits Employees Offered Attract "The Right" Employees Reputation of the Service Work Schedules That and Agency/Company Fit with Lifestyle Needs Methods of Recruitment Pre-Screening Job Previews Figure 4-2. Factors that affect recruitment of "the right" individuals.