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60 Duplicate responses (for example, responses from two Table 5-1. Correlations with people at the same agency); and turnover rate. Providing the employer contribution to health care instead Variable Correlation* of the employee contribution. Percent part-time -0.25 Operators who drive both paratransit and fixed-route ser- Public or contract provider -0.37 vice could have much lower turnover than operators who Starting wage (unadjusted) -0.28 drive only paratransit. Unfortunately, too few systems use this Training completion rate -0.35 mode of operations to test this hypothesis, but these responses *A correlation of -1.0 would mean a perfect correlation between the variable shown and the turnover rate, were included for analysis of other variables. while a correlation of 0.0 would mean no correlation at all. After elimination of systems that provided unusable data, 57 systems remained that were usable for regression analysis. Of these some did not provide answers to all the questions, so Public providers have significantly lower turnover rates than the number of cases varies somewhat, depending on the com- contract providers. As shown in Table 5-2, contract providers bination of variables tested. averaged a 32% turnover, compared to 16% at public providers. This suggests an exploration of whether the difference is due Exploratory Analysis to better wages and benefits at public providers or to some aspect of public agency operation other than compensation. As a preliminary exploration, correlations between turnover Table 5-2 shows how the various measures of compensation and candidate variables were calculated. Only four variables compare between contract and public providers. In general, have statistically significant correlations with turnover, as public operators provide better compensation on average, shown in Table 5-1. especially as regards wages and health care coverage. The per- The negative values mean that increasing values of these centage of part-time operators is somewhat lower at contract variables correspond to lower rates of turnover. All of these operators, but not by a statistically significant amount. There correlations are significantly different from zero with at least is also very little difference in the total amount of paid time off 95% confidence. The absence of a number of variables is some- that employees can receive at contract and public providers. what surprising. Notably, adjusted labor rates turn out to be weakly correlated with turnover. The maximum wage level and Regression Analysis the percentage of health coverage cost paid by the employee are somewhat more strongly correlated with turnover but not at a Variables can often interact in surprising ways. For this statistically significant level. reason, even variables that did not directly have significant Table 5-2. Differences between contract and public providers.* Variable Contract Public Difference Statistical Providers Providers (Public Significance Contract) Turnover 32% 16% -16% 99% Percent Part-time 14% 18% 4% Not significant Training Wage $8.55 $9.62 $1.07 90% Completion Rate 63% 80% 17% 95% Starting Wage $10.46 $12.05 $1.59 99% Maximum Wage $14.18 $16.61 $2.42 99% Starting Wage - Adjusted $10.30 $12.41 $2.11 99% Maximum Wage - Adjusted $13.85 $17.10 $3.25 99% Starting PTO for full-time operators** 11.2 14.4 3.2 96% Maximum PTO for full-time operators* 21.9 22.8 0.9 Not significant Employer contribution to health coverage 60% 81% 21% 99% (full-time operators)*** * Numbers and percentages may vary slightly from national survey results presented in Chapter 3 since the regression analysis was based on a subset of systems with complete survey data and on revised data obtained during follow-up contacts. ** Paid Time Off (PTO) is calculated as paid vacation plus paid holidays. *** Typically, employers pay a lower share for family coverage than individual coverage. For simplicity, the average of the two is used in this analysis. If a provider reported not offering individual or family health coverage, the employer contribution was set at 0%.