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74 CHAPTER 7 The Cost of Turnover As part of the study, research was conducted to document Methodology the full cost of vehicle operator recruitment and training. The cost of recruitment and training is one of the elements of the A spreadsheet tool was first developed to gather cost data model developed in Chapter 4 (see Figure 4-7). A more com- and operator applicant/trainee data. The spreadsheet was plete understanding of the cost of recruitment and training designed to capture both labor and other direct costs in four will allow managers of ADA paratransit operators to make general areas: (1) recruitment, (2) interviewing, (3) screen- ing, and (4) training. Examples of the types of costs incurred more informed workforce decisions--particularly the trade- in each area are presented in Table 7-1. offs between better compensation and recruitment and train- Contact persons were identified at each of the three systems. ing costs. The spreadsheet tool was sent to them and follow-up calls Documentation on the full cost of recruitment and training were made to review and answer questions about the spread- was developed by studying three selected ADA paratransit sheet and information needed. Once initial data were pro- operations. The three paratransit operations included in the vided, a second call was made to review and clarify the infor- research and analysis are the following: mation provided. Revisions were made as needed. Revised spreadsheets were then sent back to the system contacts for a Charlotte Area Transit System's (CATS) Special Trans- final review and verification. In the case of CATS, a member portation Service (STS); of the research team also visited the STS staff in Charlotte to The MV Transportation contract operation in Denver help gather data from the city. (under contract to the Denver RTD, Regional Transporta- For recruitment and advertising, data was gathered on any tion District); and staff time spent on job fairs, including preparation and/or atten- The Veolia Transportation contract operation in Balti- dance and time spent on composing advertisements seeking more (under contract to MTA, the Maryland Transit vehicle operators. Direct costs in the recruitment and advertis- Administration). ing category included ad placement fees or other advertising costs, such as placing stickers on buses. Signing bonuses for new Thesethreeoperationswereselected forthefollowingreasons: operators and referral bonuses for current operators were also included in this cost category. They reflected mid-sized to large paratransit operations: Data gathered for the applicant interviewing cost category CATS has a fleet size of 85 vehicles (72 peak pullout) and included staff time for application review, interview schedul- 84 vehicle operators; MV in Denver has a fleet size of 157 ing, and the time spent conducting the interviews themselves, vehicles and 196 operators; and Veolia in Baltimore has a both at the management and supervisory levels. fleet size of 160 vehicles and 213 operators. For screening, labor hours associated with processing the They had variation in annual turnover rates: CATS at 14%, screening paperwork were included. Direct costs in this cat- Veolia at 52%, and MV at 57%. egory included DMV driving record check fees, criminal They had variation in service design, with MV in Denver background checks, drug testing, and physicals. and Veolia in Baltimore representing private contracted The training category included labor costs for all staff operations, and CATS' STS representing an in-house, pub- members participating in training for new vehicle operators, lic operation. including primary classroom instructors, specialized training