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79 Together, these two costs total $322,920 for the year. The small. It appears that, because CATS has a comparatively high cost per applicant trained works out to $1,599. The training wage scale--$14.41 per hour plus comprehensive benefits, cost per operator hired is $2,936. CATS does not have to invest in recruitment/advertising, compared to the two contractors who spend between $2,500 Total Costs and $7,042 per year in recruitment costs. When the number of eventual hires is compared to the Over the course of last year, Veolia in Baltimore spent number of applicants recruited, there is a narrow range among $2,500 on recruiting, $105,000 on processing applications the three systems: between 5% and 7%. This becomes a useful and interviewing, $33,384 on screening, and $322,920 on ini- number for budgeting. If managers of ADA paratransit systems tial training for a grand total of $463,804 per year. With 110 know the historic attrition rate, they can estimate how many operator "graduates" hired from this process, this total figure applicants they will need to attract by dividing the number of equates to $4,216 per operator hired. As indicate above, this operators needed by between 0.05 and 0.07. does not include any costs associated with operator trainer There is a relatively narrow range of screening costs per wages, training materials, or management/administrative time operator hired, ranging from $222 per operator hired in Den- to arrange and review screening results. ver to $396 per operator hired in Charlotte. There is a relative narrow range of initial training costs per Summary of Findings operator hired, ranging from $2,583 in Charlotte to $2,936 Tables 7-2 and 7-3 provide a summary of the information per operator hired in Baltimore. Interestingly, if one looks at collected and costs estimated for each system studied. Table training costs per trainee, a comparison between the two con- 7-2 shows the number of applicants recruited, interviewed, tractors in Baltimore and Denver shows that these unit costs screened, trained, and ultimately hired (placed in service). are almost equivalent--$1,541 in Denver versus $1,599 in Table 7-3 shows the estimated costs of recruiting, interview- Baltimore. ing, screening, and training, as well as the total cost for each The biggest difference appears to be in interviewing costs system. Table 7-2 also shows the unit costs per applicant and per operator hired, ranging from a low of $147 per operator per operator hired. hired in Denver to a high of $955 per operator hired in Balti- more. Note that Veolia's total cost of reviewing the 1,800 applications and interviewing the 415 operator candidates in Observations Baltimore at $105,000 is significantly higher than the $16,250 The low number of applicants that CATS needs to recruit spent by MV in reviewing roughly 1,500 applications and to fill the 12 job openings it had in the study year is strikingly interviewing 308 operators. Table 7-2. Numbers of applicants recruited, interviewed, screened, trained, and hired. Applicants Applicants Applicants Applicants Operators Recruited Interviewed Screened Trained Hired CATS/Charlotte 250 25 20 12 12 MV/Denver 1,496 308 224 197 111 Veolia/Baltimore 1,800 415 208 202 110 Table 7-3. Total and unit costs of recruiting, interviewing, screening and training applicants. Recruiting Interviewing Screening Training Total CATA/Charlotte Total Costs $0 $5,400 $4,747 $30,990 $41,137 Per applicant $0 $216 $237 $2,583 NA Per Operator Hired $0 $450 $396 $2,583 $3,428 MV/Denver Total Costs $7,042 $16,250 $24,573 $304,171 $352,036 Per applicant $4.71 $53 $110 $1,541 NA Per Operator Hired $64 $147 $222 $2,749 $3,181 Veolia/Baltimore Total Costs $2,500 $105,000 $33,384 $322,920 $463,804 Per applicant $1.39 $253 $161 $1,599 NA Per Operator Hired $23 $955 $303 $2,936 $4,216