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80 Overall, the total cost per operator hired is a fairly narrow created by high turnover and workforce shortages can also range. The total cost per operator hired by MV in Denver have an impact on other operations personnel who must ($3,181) and by CATS in Charlotte ($3,428) are nearly iden- address and resolve these problems. This can lead to turnover tical, while the total cost per operator hired by Veolia in in other job categories such as dispatchers and reservation Baltimore ($4,216) is not that much higher, again with the agents. major difference being the substantially higher application High turnover can also be taxing on system managers. A review/interviewing costs. Paratransit managers can utilize significant amount of time can be diverted to recruitment and this narrow range for more accurate budgeting as well as to hiring, which may detract from time needed to properly man- make appropriate workforce decisions and balance the trade- age the systems and supervise all employees. A very insightful off between investing in the workforce versus spending on comment made during the focus group discussions by an recruitment and training. operator from a "challenged" system was that the manage- ment was "so used to managing turnover, they have forgotten how to manage people." The operating problems caused by The Other Costs of Turnover turnover and workforce instability can also take a toll on man- While this portion of the research focused narrowly on the agers. High turnover of managers is often evident in ADA direct financial costs of turnover, it is important to recognize paratransit systems that are "challenged." that a high turnover rate has many other significant impacts-- In general, if not managed properly, vehicle operator turnover some of which also have a monetary cost. High turnover can impacts the entire operation and organization. It can create a result in workforce shortages, which in turn can lead to closed poor and difficult workplace environment for all employees and runs and lowered service quality. The operational problems poor service quality for riders.