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NCHRP NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM SYNTHESIS 404 State of the Practice in Highway Access Management Sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration A Synthesis of Highway Practice

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TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD ACRP OVERSIGHT 2010 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* COMMITTEE* TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2009 EXECUTIVE COMMITTE CHAIR OFFICERS OFFICERS James Wilding CHAIR: Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Chair: Michael R. Morris, Independent Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington Consultant VICE CHAIR: Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Vice Chair: Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Governments, Highway Administration, Arlington Baltimore VICE CHAIR Executive Director: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., TransportationEResearch Board XECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board Jeff Hamiel MEMBERS MinneapolisSt. Paul MEMBERS Metropolitan Airports Commission J. BARRY BARKER, Executive Director, Transit Authority J. of River Barry City, Louisville, Barker, KY Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY ALLEN D. BIEHLER, MEMBERS Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg Allen D. Biehler, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg LARRY L. BROWN, SR., Executive Director, Mississippi Larry DOT, L. Jackson Brown, Sr., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson James Crites DEBORAH DallasFort H. BUTLER, Executive Worth ViceAirport International President, Planning, and CIO, Deborah Norfolk H. Butler, Southern Executive Corporation, Vice Norfolk, VA President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, WILLIAM A.V. CLARK, Richard Professor, Department of Geography, de Neufville University Norfolk, VA of California, Los Angeles EUGENE A.Massachusetts CONTI, JR., Institute of Technology Secretary of Transportation, North Carolina William A.V.DOT, Clark,Raleigh Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles NICHOLASKevin J. C. Dolliole GARBER, Unison Consulting Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department David S. of Civil Ekern, Engineering, Commissioner, and Director, Virginia DOT, Center for Transportation Studies, Richmond UniversityJohn of Virginia, K. DuvalCharlottesville Nicholas J. Garber, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University of JEFFREY W. HAMIEL, Beverly Executive Municipal Virginia, Airport Director, Metropolitan Airports Charlottesville Commission, Minneapolis, MN Kitty Freidheim PAULA J. HAMMOND, Secretary, Washington State DOT, Jeffrey OlympiaW. Hamiel, Executive Director, Metropolitan Airports Commission, Minneapolis, MN Freidheim Consulting EDWARD A. (NED) Steve HELME, President, Center for CleanEdward Grossman Air Policy,A. (Ned) Helme, DC Washington, President, Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC ADIB K. KANAFANI, Cahill Professor Jacksonville Aviation Randell H. Iwasaki, Director, Authority of Civil Engineering, University of California, BerkeleyCalifornia DOT, Sacramento SUSAN MARTINOVICH, Tom Jensen Director, Nevada DOT, CarsonSusan City Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City National Safe DEBRA L. MILLER, Skies Alliance Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka Debra L. Miller, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka Catherine M. Lang Neil ofJ. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore SANDRA ROSENBLOOM, Professor of Planning, University Federal Aviation Administration Arizona, Tucson TRACY L. ROSSER, Pete K. Rahn, Director, Missouri DOT, LA Jefferson City Gina MarieVice President, Corporate Traffic, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Mandeville, Lindsey Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson STEVEN T. Los SCALZO, ChiefAirports Angeles World Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, WA Carolyn Motz Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Regional General Manager, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Mandeville, LA HENRY G. (GERRY) SCHWARTZ, JR., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO Hagerstown Regional Airport Rosa Clausell Rountree, CEOGeneral Manager, Transroute International Canada Services, Inc., BEVERLY A. SCOTT, Richard General Manager and Chief Executive Officer, Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority, Atlanta, GA Tucker Pitt Meadows, BC DAVID SELTZER, HuntsvillePrincipal, Mercator International Airport Advisors LLC, Philadelphia, PA Chief Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, WA Steven T. Scalzo, DANIEL SPERLING, Professor of Civil Engineering and Environmental Henry G. (Gerry) Science and Policy; Schwartz, Director, Jr., Chairman Institute Jacobs/Sverdrup (retired), of Transportation Studies; Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO EX and Interim OFFICIO Director, MEMBERS Energy Efficiency Center, University of California, Davis C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Aust KIRK T. STEUDLE, Director, Michigan DOT, Lansing Linda S. Watson, CEO, LYNXCentral Florida Regional Transportation Authority, Orlando Sabrina Johnson DOUGLAS W. U.S.STOTLAR, Environmental Protectionand President Agency CEO, Con-Way,Steve Inc., Williams, Ann Arbor, MI Chairman and CEO, Maverick Transportation, Inc., Little Rock, AR Richard Marchi C. MICHAEL WALTON, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Airports Council International--North America Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin Laura McKee EX OFFICIO MEMBERS EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Air Transport Association of America Thad Allen (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, DC Henry Ogrodzinski PETER H. APPEL, Administrator, Research and Innovative National Association of State Aviation Officials Technology Peter H. Appel,Administration, Administrator,U.S.DOT Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT J. RANDOLPH BABBITT, Melissa Sabatine Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, J. Randolph U.S.DOT Babbitt, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT REBECCA M. BREWSTER, American President Association of Airport and COO, American Executives Transportation Rebecca Research M. Brewster, Institute, President Smyrna, and COO, GA Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, G American Robert E. Skinner,President GEORGE BUGLIARELLO, Jr. George Emeritus and University Bugliarello, Professor, President Polytechnic Emeritus Institute ofand New University Professor, York University, Polytechnic Institute of New York Brooklyn; Transportation Research Board University, Brooklyn; Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC ANNE S. FERRO, Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety JamesAdministration, E. Caponiti, Acting Deputy Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT U.S.DOT SECRETARY LEROY GISHI, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau Cynthia of IndianDouglass, Acting Affairs, U.S. Deputy Administrator, Department Pipeline of the Interior, and Hazardous Washington, DC Materials Safety Christopher W. Jenks Administration, U.S.DOT Washington, DC EDWARD R. HAMBERGER, President Transportation Research Board and CEO, Association of American Railroads, JOHN C. HORSLEY, Executive Director, American Association LeRoyof Gishi, StateChief, Division Highway of Transportation, and Transportation BureauWashington, Officials, of Indian Affairs, DC U.S. Department of the Interior, DAVID T. MATSUDA, Deputy Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT Washington, DC VICTOR M. MENDEZ, Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, Edward R. Hamberger, U.S.DOT President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation WILLIAM W. MILLAR, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC Officials, Washington, DC ROBERT J. PAPP (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC Rose A. McMurry, Acting Deputy Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S.D CYNTHIA L. QUARTERMAN, Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Ronald Medford, Acting Deputy Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, PETER M. ROGOFF, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOTU.S.DOT DAVID L. STRICKLAND, Administrator, National Highway Traffic Victor Safety Administration, M. Mendez, Administrator,U.S.DOT Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT JOSEPH C. SZABO, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC POLLY TROTTENBERG, Assistant Secretary for Transportation Peter M. Policy, Rogoff,U.S.DOT Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT ROBERT L. VAN ANTWERP (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers Joseph C. Szabo,and Commanding Administrator, General, Federal U.S. Administration, Railroad Army Corps of Engineers, U.S.DOT Washington, DC Polly Trottenberg, Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy, U.S.DOT Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC *Membership as of July 2010. *Membership as of October 2009. *Membership as of October 2009. MASTERS

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM NCHRP Synthesis 404 State of the Practice in Highway Access Management A Synthesis of Highway Practice Consultants JEROME S. GLUCK and MATTHEW R. LORENZ AECOM Consulting Transportation Group, Inc. New York, N.Y. S ubscriber C ategories Design Highways Operations and Traffic Management Research Sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in Cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2010 www.TRB.org

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM NCHRP Synthesis 404 Systematic, well-designed research provides the most effective Project 20-05 (Topic 40-11) approach to the solution of many problems facing highway administra- ISSN 0547-5570 tors and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local interest and ISBN 978-0-309-14305-9 can best be studied by highway departments individually or in coop- Library of Congress Control No. 2009942377 eration with their state universities and others. However, the accelerat- ing growth of highway transportation develops increasingly complex 2010 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. problems of wide interest to highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of cooperative research. In recognition of these needs, the highway administrators of the COPYRIGHT INFORMATION American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their manuscripts initiated in 1962 an objective national highway research program and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who employing modern scientific techniques. This program is supported own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material on a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of used herein. the Association and it receives the full cooperation and support of Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to repro- the Federal Highway Administration, United States Department of duce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit pur- Transportation. poses. Permission is given with the understanding that non of the mate- The Transportation Research Board of the National Research Coun- rial will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMSCA, cil was requested by the Association to administer the research pro- FTA, or Transit development Corporation endorsement of a particular gram because of the Board's recognized objectivity and understanding product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the of modern research practices. The Board is uniquely suited for this material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will purpose as it maintains an extensive committee structure from which give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any development or authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; it reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission possesses avenues of communication and cooperation with federal, from CRP. state, and local governmental agencies, universities, and industry; its relationship to the National Research Council is an insurance of objec- NOTICE tivity; it maintains a full-time research correlation staff of specialists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of research The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the National directly to those who are in a position to use them. Cooperative Highway Research Program conducted by the Transpor- The program is developed on the basis of research needs identified tation Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of by chief administrators of the highway and transportation departments the National Research Council. Such approval reflects the Governing and by committees of AASHTO. Each year, specific areas of research Board's judgment that the program concerned is of national impor- needs to be included in the program are proposed to the National tance and appropriate with respect to both the purposes and resources Research Council and the Board by the American Association of State of the National Research Council. Highway and Transportation Officials. Research projects to fulfill The members of the technical committee selected to monitor this these needs are defined by the Board, and qualified research agencies project and to review this report were chosen for recognized scholarly are selected from those that have submitted proposals. Administration competence and with due consideration for the balance of disciplines and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the appropriate to the project. 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Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the tech- nical committee according to procedures established and monitored by the Transportation Research Board Executive Committee and the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Published reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office NOTE: The Transportation Research Board of the National Acad- 500 Fifth Street, NW emies, the National Research Council, the Federal Highway Adminis- Washington, DC 20001 tration, the American Association of State Highway and Transporta- tion Officials, and the individual states participating in the National and can be ordered through the Internet at: Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of this report. 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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the ser- vices of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Acad- emy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and prog- ress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board's varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

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NCHRP COMMITTEE FOR PROJECT 20-05 COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS STAFF CHRISTOPHER W. JENKS, Director, Cooperative Research Programs CHAIR CRAWFORD F. JENCKS, Deputy Director, Cooperative CATHERINE NELSON Research Programs Oregon DOT NANDA SRINIVASAN, Senior Program Officer EILEEN DELANEY, Director of Publications MEMBERS KATHLEEN S. AMES NCHRP SYNTHESIS STAFF Springfield, Illinois STEPHEN R. GODWIN, Director for Studies and STUART D. ANDERSON Special Programs Texas A&M University JON M. WILLIAMS, Program Director, IDEA and CYNTHIA J. BURBANK Synthesis Studies PB Americas, Inc. Jo Allen Gause, Senior Program Officer GAIL STABA, Senior Program Officer LISA FREESE DONNA L. VLASAK, Senior Program Officer Scott County (MN) Public Works Division DON TIPPMAN, Editor MALCOLM T. KERLEY CHERYL KEITH, Senior Program Assistant Virginia DOT DEBBIE IRVIN, Program Associate RICHARD D. LAND California DOT JAMES W. MARCH TOPIC PANEL Federal Highway Administration PETER A. ALLAIN, Louisiana Department of Transportation JOHN M. MASON, JR and Development Auburn University RICHARD A. CUNARD, Transportation Research Board LISA FREESE, Scott County (MN) Public Works Division ANANTH PRASAD HAROLD LASLEY, Oregon Department of Transportation HNTB Corporation HERBERT S. LEVINSON, Wallingford, CT ROBERT L. SACK DAVID C. ROSE, Parsons Brinkerhoff Strategic Consulting New York State DOT Services, New York, N.Y. FRANCINE SHAW-WHITSON GRANT G. SCHULTZ, Brigham Young University Federal Highway Administration NEIL C. SPILLER, Federal Highway Administration (Liaison) LARRY VELASQUEZ ZHONGREN WANG, California Department of Transportation New Mexico DOT RICHARD C. WORSSAM, Virginia Department of Transportation WEI ZHANG, Federal Highway Administration (Liaison) FHWA LIAISON JACK JERNIGAN TRB LIAISON STEPHEN F. MAHER

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FOREWORD Highway administrators, engineers, and researchers often face problems for which information already exists, either in documented form or as undocumented experience and practice. This information may be fragmented, scattered, and unevaluated. As a consequence, full knowledge of what has been learned about a problem may not be brought to bear on its solution. Costly research findings may go unused, valuable experience may be overlooked, and due consider- ation may not be given to recommended practices for solving or alleviating the problem. There is information on nearly every subject of concern to highway administrators and engi- neers. Much of it derives from research or from the work of practitioners faced with problems in their day-to-day work. To provide a systematic means for assembling and evaluating such useful information and to make it available to the entire highway community, the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials--through the mechanism of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program--authorized the Transportation Research Board to undertake a continuing study. This study, NCHRP Project 20-5, "Synthesis of Infor- mation Related to Highway Problems," searches out and synthesizes useful knowledge from all available sources and prepares concise, documented reports on specific topics. Reports from this endeavor constitute an NCHRP report series, Synthesis of Highway Practice. This synthesis series reports on current knowledge and practice, in a compact format, with- out the detailed directions usually found in handbooks or design manuals. Each report in the series provides a compendium of the best knowledge available on those measures found to be the most successful in resolving specific problems. PREFACE This synthesis reports how various agencies have acted on the various components of an By Donna L. Vlasak access management program, what have been barriers to action, and how new efforts might improve implementation of access management strategies. Primary focus areas considered Senior Program Officer are legal and legislative bases, contents of policies and programs, implementation aspects, Transportation reported effectiveness of program implementation, and profiles of contemporary practice. Research Board This synthesis reports on the state of the practice with respect to planning, highway design, development review and permitting, and other focus areas where access management is typically incorporated. The emphasis is placed on states, but counties, municipalities, and metropolitan planning organizations are also considered. The synthesis includes a comprehensive review of existing access management-related literature. This was supplemented by an online survey questionnaire distributed to key staff with access management responsibilities identified by state departments of transportation, as well as at various participating metropolitan planning organizations, counties, and munici- palities. Although 45 of 50 states initially responded to the survey, 5 additional states later provided survey responses, raising the response rate to 100%. In addition, profiles of con- temporary access management practices, highlighting key aspects of how transportation agencies develop and administer their access management programs are presented. Jerome S. Gluck and Matthew R. Lorenz, AECOM Consulting Transportation Group Inc., New York, N.Y., collected and synthesized the information and wrote the report. The members of the topic panel are acknowledged on the preceding page. This synthesis is an immediately useful document that records the practices that were acceptable within the limitations of the knowledge available at the time of its preparation. As progress in research and practice continues, new knowledge will be added to that now at hand.

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Contents 1 SUMMARY 5 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Background, 5 Synthesis Objective, 5 Methodology, 6 Questionnaire Development, 6 Report Organization, 7 8 CHAPTER TWO BASIS FOR ACCESS MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS AND POLICIES Background, 8 Legal Basis for Access Management, 8 11 CHAPTER THREE CONTENTS OF POLICIES AND PROGRAMS Background, 11 Literature Search, 11 Survey Results, 46 57 CHAPTER FOUR PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION Literature Search, 57 Survey Results, 65 80 CHAPTER FIVE REPORTED EFFECTIVENESS OF PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION Literature Search, 80 Survey Results, 80 91 CHAPTER SIX PROFILES OF CONTEMPORARY PRACTICES Implementation of a Statewide Access Management Program in Virginia, 91 North Carolina Department of Transportation Strategic Corridors Initiative, 92 Development of Access Classification System for Indiana Department of Transportation, 94 Minnesota Department of Transportation's Development and Access Permitting Review Process, 95 Oregon Department of Transportation's Automated Permit Database (CHAMPS), 98 Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development's Traffic Impact Study Policy and Process, 98 Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development's Approach to Implementing Access Management, 101 California Department of Transportation's Equitable Share Responsibility Calculations, 102 New Jersey Department of Transportation's Vehicle-Use Limitations for Nonconforming Lots, 103 Transit-Related Trip-Generation Credits in the New Jersey Access Code, 103 106 CHAPTER SEVEN CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Overview of Current Programs, 106 Practices for Program Implementation, 106 Future Research and Needed Resources, 107 109 REFERENCES 113 APPENDIX A Access Management Survey 141 APPENDIX B List of Responding Agencies

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145 APPENDIX C Summary of Survey Responses 267 APPENDIX D Retrofit Toolbox Appendixes AD of this report can be found at www.trb.org, search on "NCHRP Synthesis 404."