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106 CHAPTER seven Conclusions and Implications This chapter presents conclusions associated with this syn- The most commonly cited barriers related to the imple- thesis project. It is organized as follows: mentation of access management among responding state DOTs are as follows: Overview of current programs and experiences of transportation agencies in the administration of access Political resistance (80%) management A lack of staff and funding resources (60%) Best practices for access management program Organization and institutional limitations (52%) implementation Suggestions for future research and for development Other common barriers cited included a lack of education of additional resources to support access management and training opportunities, resistance by the development implementation community, limited coordination with local governments, legal issues, and a lack of vision. Overview Of Current Programs Practices For Program Implementation Access management practices--whether part of a formal access management program, or conducted informally as The successful implementation of access management is the part of normal business operations--currently are used at objective of any program. Based on the survey findings pre- all state departments of transportation (DOTs) in the United sented in this synthesis, the following items were identified States. Approximately two-thirds of the 50 state DOTs indi- by survey respondents as helping to improve the implemen- cated that they have a formal access management program tation and enhancement of access management programs: and, although the remaining one-third do not have a formal program, they manage access as part of an informal part of Legal basis/legislation-- Strong access management their normal operations. Among all state DOTs, access man- authority provides the foundation for a successful access agement is most commonly applied at the driveway permit management program. States with access management- level (92%), although it is also applied at the project level related statutory authority or administrative rules have (78%), at the corridor level (64%), and at the statewide level stronger legal backing for their access management pro- (60%). grams and policies. State DOTs with access codes (based on the enabling statutory authority or administrative The most commonly cited strengths related to the imple- rules) are generally better suited to manage access along mentation of access management are as follows: state highways. An access code enables state DOTs to establish standards and enforce them uniformly. Having some inherent flexibility for making judgment Access Classification System (ACS) --An ACS pro- decisions (76% of state DOTs and 53% of locals) vides a framework for the comprehensive implementa- Representing a defensible administrative rule (60% of tion of access management on a systemwide basis. state DOTs and 23% of locals) Access committee --Access management is most suc- Providing uniformity when controlling access (52% of cessful in cases in which the agency has the institutional state DOTs and 51% of locals) commitment to implement the program and integrate it into the daily business functions. This could involve Strong organizational commitment was cited as a planning, permitting, traffic engineering, project deliv- strength by 40% of the responding state DOTs, and 26% of ery, and operations and maintenance activities to form the local agencies. Some specific program strengths cited a strong foundation for access management within a by state DOT respondents--including allowances for design state DOT or transportation agency. An internal com- waivers and flexible guidelines--underscored the need for mittee can be formed to review and provide feedback flexibility. on difficult or controversial access-related issues.