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OCR for page 107
107 Staffing-- Implementation efforts have the greatest Stakeholder cooperation--Access management is best effect when state DOTs and transportation agencies achieved when state, regional, county, and local units can dedicate staff to access management. The number of government cooperate in land use and transporta- of staff members devoted to access management--as tion management decisions. A critical element of access well as their roles, staff levels, and location (i.e., cen- management is the land use authority held by local units tral versus district office)--vary widely among the of government. Although state DOTs are responsible for responding agencies. In most states, the staff devoted traffic on the state highway, land use decisions for adja- to access management also has responsibilities in other cent and nearby properties most often are made by local areas. governments. Therefore, it is crucial that local govern- Access champion--What is often needed is a person (or ments be aware of the traffic- and access-related ramifi- persons) to emphasize and support the access manage- cations of their local land use decisions. The importance ment agenda within an agency. Ideally, these "champi- of coordinating permit and access management deci- ons" are people who are empowered to make changes and sions between state, county, and local agencies cannot withstand challenges resulting from political pressure. be understated. Simply involving the state DOT or local Legal case history--Court cases set the legal precedent road agency early in the process of planning and review- for access management decisions in each state. State ing a development can produce many benefits. DOTs with a strong case history of winning court cases Statewide master plan--An Access Management Plan are more empowered in making future access-related (AMP) is a planning tool that addresses land development decisions than those with a history of losing cases, which and access management considerations along a roadway can undermine the authority of the state DOT. corridor, or series of corridors. These plans enable access Case studies -- Real-world case studies that clearly management to be implemented on a case-by-case basis illustrate the benefits of access management are instru- along key corridors, particularly where there is local sup- mental in convincing elected officials, state and local port. The plan is often jointly developed and adopted by the government officials, the development community, and state (if the road is a state highway) and local agencies that other decision makers of its merits. Ideally, the case have jurisdiction over land development in the affected area, studies would highlight local access management proj- and is useful for dealing with areas that are undeveloped or ects with which the intended audience has some famil- areas where redevelopment is possible. The defining char- iarity to reinforce the benefits that were achieved by acteristic of a successful AMP is the level of cooperation implementing access management. achieved among affected property owners and agencies Education and training--Access management train- involved in developing and carrying out the plan. ing for agency staff is crucial. Training efforts need to Monitoring and evaluation --Any access manage- be initiated and maintained to educate new staff mem- ment program will greatly benefit from continuous bers and reach existing staff throughout an agency. It monitoring and self-evaluation to identify issues and is advisable to provide early and ongoing training for resolve problems. What was clear from this synthesis is agency staff dealing with, or expected to deal with, that greater awareness is generally needed with respect access managementrelated issues. Implementation to the existing access management resources that are of an access management program often requires new available. It is important to note that TRB's Access staff skills and involves new agency procedures. Management website ( Outreach activities --Outreach to parties affected by contains a wealth of information. the implementation of an access management program can clarify agency objectives and reduce misunder- standings. Elected officials, the development commu- Future Research And Needed Resources nity, and the general public need to be educated about the rationale and benefits behind access management. Based on the survey responses, the following topics are sug- The education of elected officials, in particular, is a key gestions for future research and needed resources: element of implementing a successful access manage- ment program. Education outreach efforts to local com- Access management successes for use in educating and munities, business groups, and the public were cited as convincing stakeholders of the need for access manage- successes in informing stakeholders of the potential ment and the real-world benefits that can be realized. safety and operational benefits of access management. In particular, case studies concerning retrofit projects Brochures, websites, and videos describing the pro- and methods of overcoming potential legal challenges gram can be helpful for informing the public, policy would be helpful. makers, and staff about the purpose of access man- Profiles spotlighting examples of poor practice in agement and any agency changes in policies or proce- "failed corridors" where inadequate capacity and speed dures. A variety of outreach materials can be found at reductions were related to poor access management decisions or lack of access management planning.

OCR for page 107
108 Economic benefits of access management, includ- guidance usually is limited to either "urban" or "rural" ing quantifiable cost-saving factors associated with areas.) the benefits of implementing access management Guidance for interchange area management plans, techniques. incorporating both transportation and land use Relationships between access management and other elements. key policy objectives, such as smart growth and sus- Relationship between eminent domain law and access tainability, transit-oriented development, and context- management implementation. sensitive solutions. Safety and operational studies, under a range of traffic Guidance for "fringe" areas. These typically suburban volumes and other considerations, to identify the situ- or actively developing areas are located between devel- ations in which road diets would be appropriate. This oped urban areas and undeveloped rural areas. Fringe would help agencies evaluate traffic operations and areas present excellent opportunities to either imple- capacity at a given site before implementing a road diet ment access management proactively or incorporate or other lane reduction measures. retrofit highway improvements. (Access management