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109 References 1. Access Management Manual, Transportation Research Engineering," Special Report 93, Highway Research Board, Washington, D.C., 2003. Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 1967. 2. Williams, K.M. and H.S. Levinson, Access Manage- ment: Past, Present, and Future, presented at the 8th 13.Cribbins, P.D., J.M. Arey, and J.K. Donaldson, "Effects National Access Management Conference, Baltimore, of Selected Roadway and Operational Characteristics on Md., July 14, 2008. Accidents on Multilane Highways," Highway Research Record 188, Highway Research Board, National Research 3. Rose, D., J.S. Gluck, and K. Williams, NCHRP Report Council, Washington, D.C., 1967, pp. 825. 548: A Guidebook for Including Access Management in Transportation Planning, Transportation Research 14.Cribbins, P.D., J.W. Horn, F.V. Beeson, and R.D. Taylor, Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., "Median Openings on Divided Highways: Their Effect 2005. on Accident Rates and Level of Service," Highway Research Record 188, Highway Research Board, 4. Technical Report #1: Access Management Authority in National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 1967, pp. Indiana, Indiana Access Management Study, prepared 140157. by Urbitran Associates, Inc., for the Indiana Department of Transportation, Indianapolis, Jan. 12, 2006 [Online]. 15.Mulinazzi, T.E. and H.L. Michael, Correlation of Design Available: http://www.in.gov/indot/files/legal.pdf. Characteristics and Operational Controls with Accident Rates on Urban Arterials, Proceedings of the 53rd 5. Gattis, J.L., J.S. Gluck, J.M. Barlow, R.W. Eck, W.F. Annual Road School, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Hecker, and H.S. Levinson, NCHRP Project 15-35: Ind., 1967. Guide for the Geometric Design of Driveways, Trans- portation Research Board of the National Academiesil, 16.McGuirk, W.W. and G.T. Satterly, "Evaluation of Factors Washington, D.C., 2009. Influencing Driveway Accidents," Transportation Research Record 601, Transportation Research Board, 6. Koepke, F. and H.S. Levinson, NCHRP Report 348: National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 1976, pp. Access Management Guidelines for Activity Centers, 6672. Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 1992. 17. Heimbach, C.L., P.D. Cribbins, and M.S. Chang, "Some Partial Consequences of Reduced Traffic Lane Widths 7. Gluck, J.S., H.S. Levinson, and V. Stover, NCHRP Report on Urban Arterials," Transportation Research Record 420: Impacts of Access Management Techniques, Trans- 923, Transportation Research Board, National Research portation Research Board, National Research Council, Council, Washington, D.C., 1983, pp. 6972. Washington, D.C., 1999. 18.McGee, H.W., and W.E. Hughes, "Safety Benefits of 8. A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets, Access Management," Conference Proceedings, First American Association of State Highway and Transporta- National Access Management Conference, Federal tion Officials, Washington, D.C., 2004, pp. 729731. Highway Administration, Washington, D.C., 1993. 9. Gattis, J.L., Assess the Need for Implementing an Access 19. Wu, C., Median Modifications After Study for US 192, Management Program, TRC 04-04, Arkansas State Vol. 1, Transportation Engineering, Inc., Altamonte Highway and Transportation Department, Little Rock, Springs, Fla., Sep. 1998. Sep. 2005. 20.Preston, H., D. Keltner, R. Newton, and C. Albrecht, Sta- 10.Kipp, O.L., "Final Report on the Minnesota Roadway tistical Relationship Between Vehicular Crashes and Study," Highway Research Bulletin 55, Highway Highway Access, MN/RC-1998-27, Minnesota Depart- Research Board, National Research Council, Washing- ment of Transportation, St. Paul, Aug. 1998. ton, D.C., 1952, pp. 3337. 21. Gattis, J.L., R. Balakumar, and L.K. Duncan, "Effects of 11. Head, J.A., "Predicting Traffic Accidents from Roadway Rural Highway Median Treatments and Access," Trans- Elements on Urban Extensions of State Highways," portation Research Record: Journal of the Transporta- Highway Research Bulletin 208, Highway Research tion Research Board, No. 1931, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 1959, pp. 4563. 2005, pp. 99107. 12.Wilson, J.E., "Simple Types of Intersection Improve- ments, Improved Street Utilization Through Traffic

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110 22.Telford, E.T., R.J. Israel, and D.W. Loutzenheiser, C019: Access Spacing and Traffic Safety, Proceedings "Median Study (California)," Highway Research Board from the Urban Street Symposium, Dallas, Tex., June Proceedings, Vol. 32, Highway Research Board, National 2830, 1999. Research Council, Washington, D.C., 1953. 33.Gattis, J.L. and D. Hutchinson, "Comparison of Delay 23.Frick, W.A., "The Effect of Major Physical Improve- and Accidents on Three Roadway Access Designs in ments on Capacity and Safety," Traffic Engineering, Vol. Springfield," Fourth National Access Management Con- 39, No. 3, Institute of Transportation Engineers, Wash- ference, Portland, Ore., Aug. 1316, 2000, 16 pp. ington, D.C., Dec. 1968. 34.Parsonson, P.S., M.G. Waters, III, and J.S. Fincher, 24.McCoy, P.T., J.L. Ballard, D.S. Eitel, and W.E. Witt, "Georgia Study Confirms the Continuing Safety Advan- "Two-Way Left-Turn Lane Guidelines for Urban Four- tage of Raised Medians Over Two-Way Left-Turn Lanes," Lane Roadways," Transportation Research Record 1195, Proceedings from the Fourth National Access Manage- Transportation Research Board, National Research ment Conference, Portland, Ore., Aug. 13-16, 2000. Council, Washington, D.C., 1988, pp. 1119. 35. Highway Results Digest 247: The Relationship Between 25.Squires, C.A. and P.S. Parsonson, "Accident Comparison Access Density and Accident Rates: Comparisons of of Raised Median and Two-Way Left-Turn Lane Median NCHRP Report 420 and Minnesota Data, Transporta- Treatments," Transportation Research Record 1239, tion Research Board, National Research Council, Wash- Transportation Research Board, National Research ington, D.C., 2000, 11 pp. Council, Washington, D.C., 1989, pp. 3040. 36.Levinson, H.S., Access Spacing and Accidents: A Con- 26.Long, G., C.T. Gan, and B.S. Morrison, Safety Impacts of ceptual Analysis, presented at the Urban Street Sympo- Selected Median and Design Features, Transportation sium, Dallas, Tex, 1999. Research Center, University of Florida, prepared in 37. Gluck, J.S., H.S. Levinson, V. Stover, G. Yazersy-Ritzer, cooperation with state of Florida Department of Trans- and S. J. Bellomo, Transportation Research Circular portation, Tallahassee, 1993. Number 456: Driveway and Street Intersection Spacing, 27.Bowman, B.L. and R.L. Vecellio, "Effect of Urban and Task Force of the Committee on Access Management, Suburban Median Types on Both Vehicular and Pedes- Transportation Research Board, National Research trian Safety," Transportation Research Record 1445, Council, Washington, D.C., Mar. 1996. Transportation Research Board, National Research 38.Stover, V.G. and F.J. Koepke, Transportation and Land Council, Washington, D.C., 1994, pp. 169179. Development, 2nd ed., Institute of Transportation Engi- 28.Hadi, M.A., J. Aruldhas, L.-F. Chow, and J.A. Wattle- neers, Washington, D.C., 2002. worth, "Estimating Safety Effects of Cross-Section 39.Schultz, G.G., K.T. Braley, and T. Boschert, "Correlating Design for Various Highway Types Using Negative Access Management to Crash rate, Severity, and Colli- Binomial Regression," Transportation Research Record sion Type," 87th Annual Meeting of the Transportation 1500, Transportation Research Board, National Research Research Board, Washington, D.C., Jan. 1317, 2008. Council, Washington, D.C., 1995, pp. 169177. 40.Rosales, J.A., Road Diet Handbook: Setting Trends for 29.Margiotta, R. and A. Chatterjee, "Accidents on Subur- Livable Streets, Web Seminar Student Supplement, PB ban Highways: Tennessee's Experience," Journal of Placemaking, Portland, Ore. [Online]. Available: http:// Transportation Engineering, Vol. 121, No. 3, May/June lcmpoweb.las-cruces.org/Training/Road%20Diet/ 1995. Road%20Diet%20Supplement.pdf. 30.Bonneson, J.A. and P.T. McCoy, NCHRP Report 395: 41. Huang, H.F., J.R. Stewart and C.V. Zegeer, HSIS Sum- Capacity and Operational Effects of Midblock Left-Turn mary Report: Evaluation of Lane Reduction "Road Diet" Lanes, Transportation Research Board, National Measures and Their Effects on Crashes and Injuries, Research Council, Washington, D.C., 1997. Report FHWA-HRT-04-082, Federal Highway Admin- 31. Council. F.W. and R.J. Stewart, "Safety Effects of the istration, Washington, D.C., 2002 Conversion of Rural Two-Lane to Four-Lane Roadways 42.Median Handbook, Florida Department of Transporta- Based on Cross-Sectional Models," Transportation tion, Tallahassee, 1997. Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 1665, Transportation Research 43.Potts, I.B., et al., NCHRP Report 524: Safety of U-Turns Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., at Unsignalized Median Openings, Transportation 1999, pp. 3543. Research Board of the National Academies, Washing- ton, D.C., 2004. 32.Papayannoulis, V., J.S. Gluck, K. Feeney, and H.S. Levinson, Transportation Research Circular No. E

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111 44.Butorac, M.A. and J.C. Wen, NCHRP Synthesis 332: 57. City of Hudsonville Zoning Ordinance, Article 9, Sec- Access Management on Crossroads in the Vicinity of tion 9-4, Driveway Location Standards, Hudsonville, Interchanges, Transportation Research Board of the Mich. National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2004. 58.Eisdorfer, A. and R. Siley, Variances--An Important 45.Messer, C.S. and J.A. Bonneson, NCHRP Project 3-47: Part of Access Management Decisions, Second National Capacity Analysis of Interchange Ramp Terminals-- Conference on Access Management, Vail, Colo., Aug. Phase 1, Transportation Research Board, National 1114, 1996. Research Council, Washington, D.C., 1997. 59. Access and Roadside Management Standards, SCDOT 46.Median Handbook--Interim Version, Florida Depart- Traffic Engineering, South Carolina Department of ment of Transportation, Systems Planning Office, Tal- Transportation, Columbia, 2008 ed., 130 pp. lahassee, 2006 [Online]. Available: http://www.dot. 60.Transportation Impact Analyses for Site Development: state.fl.us/planning/systems/sm/accman/pdfs/mhb06b. An ITE Proposed Recommended Practice, Institute of pdf. Transportation Engineers, Washington, D.C., Jan. 2006. 47. Williams, K. and G. Sokolow, Model Land Development 61. Huntington, D. and J. Wen, NCHRP Synthesis 351: & Subdivision Regulations that Support Access Manage- Access Rights, Transportation Research Board of the ment for Florida Cities and Counties, Center for Urban National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2005. Transportation Research, Tampa, Fla., Jan. 1994, p. 3. 62.Review of SDDOT's Highway Access Control Process, 48.Land, L.A. and K. Williams, Land Development and Study SD99-01: Final Report, prepared by Dye Manage- Access Management Strategies for Florida Interchange ment Group for the South Dakota Department of Trans- Areas, Center for Urban Transportation Research, portation, Pierre, Feb. 2000, pp. III-34III-37. Tampa, Fla., Jan. 2000. 63.Liu, P., J.J. Lu, F. Princcioglu, D. Sunanda, and G. 49. A Policy on Design Standards--Interstate System, Sokolow, "Should Direct Left-turns from Driveways be American Association of State Highway and Transporta- Replaced by Right-Turns followed by U-turns? The tion Officials, Washington, D.C., 2005. Safety and Operational Comparison in Florida," Pro- 50.Rakha, H., A.M. Flintsch, M. Arafeh, A.G. Abdel-Salam, ceedings of the 3rd Urban Street Symposium, Seattle, D. Dua, and M. Abbas, Access Control Design on High- Wash. 2007. way Interchanges, Report VTRC 08-CR7, Virginia 64.Lu., J. and K. Williams, Safety Evaluation of Right Turns Transportation Research Council, Charlottesville, 2008. Followed by U-Turns as an Alternative to Direct Left 51. Stover, V.G., Access Management Techniques and Prac- Turns, for Florida DOT, Center for Urban Transportation tices: A Toolbox for the Practitioner, Teach America, Research, Tampa, 2001. Quincy, Fla., 2007, revised 2009 [Online]. Available: 65.Zhou, H., J. Lu, X. Yang, S. Dissanayake, and K. Wil- www.teachamerica.com. liams, "Operational Effects of U-turns as Alternatives to 52.Schultz, G.G., K.T. Braley, and T. Boschert, "Prioritizing Direct Left Turns from Driveways," Transportation Access Management Implementation," Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 1796, Transportation Research Research Board, No. 2092, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2002, pp. 7279. 2009, pp. 5765. 66.Jagannathan, R., Synthesis of the Median U-Turn Inter- 53.Williams, K., NCHRP Synthesis 304: Driveway Regula- section Treatment, Safety, and Operational Benefits, 3rd tion Practices, Transportation Research Board of the Street Urban Symposium, Uptown, Downtown, or Small National Academies Council, Washington, D.C., 2002. Town: Designing Urban Streets That Work, Transporta- tion Research Board of the National Academies, Wash- 54.Virginia Administrative Code, Chapter 72, 24VAC30- ington, D.C., 2007, 23 pp. 72-120: Commercial Entrance Access Management, Section A, Subsection 4. 67. Rodegerdts, L.E., et al., Signalized Intersections Infor- mation Guide, FHWA-HRT-04-491, Federal Highway 55. Access Management Toolkit, Community Planning Administration, Washington, D.C., 2004, p. 243. Association of Southwest Idaho, Meridian, Approved Aug. 2007, Amended July 2008. 68.Hummer, J.E. and R. Jagannathan, An Update on Super- street Implementation and Research, Eighth National 56.Do You Need Access to A State Highway? prepared by Conference on Access Management, Transportation Urbitran Associates, Inc., for the Indiana Department of Research Board, Baltimore, Md., July 2008. Transportation, Indianapolis, 2006.

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112 69.Thomas, R.C., "Continuous Left-Turn Channelization 82.INDOT 2030 Long Range Transportation Plan, Indiana and Accidents," Traffic Engineering, Vol. 37, No. 3, Dec. Department of Transportation, Indianapolis, Chapter 6, 1966. Figure 6-2, p. 78. 70.Levinson, H.S., Capacity of Shared Left-Turn Lanes--A 83. Access Management Guide, Indiana Department of Simplified Approach, Transportation Research Record Transportation, Indianapolis, Aug. 2006, Table 3-1, p. 1225, Transportation Research Board, National Research 29. Council, Washington, D.C., 1989, pp. 4552. 84.Access Management Manual, Minnesota Department of 71.Potts, I., et al., NCHRP Project 3-72: Lane Widths, Chan- Transportation, St. Paul, 2008, Chapter 4 [Online]. nelized Right Turns, and Right-Turn Deceleration Lanes Available: http://www.oim.dot.state.mn.us/access/ in Urban and Suburban Areas, Transportation Research index.html. Record, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 85.Central Highway Approach/Maintenance Permit System 1989, p. 1. (CHAMPS) User Guide, version 2.11, Oregon Depart- 72.Potts, I., NCHRP Project 03-89: Design Guidance for ment of Transportation, Salem, 2006 [Online]. Avail- Channelized Right-Turn Lanes, Transportation Research able: http://www.oregon.gov/ODOT/HWY/ Record, National Research Council, Washington, D.C. ACCESSMGT/docs/CHAMPS_User_Guide_2006.pdf. 73. Improving Access Management in Indiana: A Coopera- 86.CHAMPS User Guide, Version 2.11, Oregon Department tive State-Local Approach, Urbitran Associates, Inc. for of Transportation, Salem, 2006, p. 9. Indiana Department of Transportation, Indianapolis, 87. Traffic Impact Policy for New Access Requests, Louisi- 2006. ana Traffic Engineering Development Section, Louisi- 74. Reducing Traffic Congestion and Improving Traffic ana Department of Transportation and Development, Safety in Michigan Communities: The Access Manage- Baton Rouge, Mar. 2005 [Online]. Available: http:// ment Guidebook, prepared by the Planning & Zoning www.dotd.la.gov/highways/traffic/documents/Traffic_ Center, Inc. for the Michigan Department of Transporta- Impacts_Policy_20070611.pdf. tion, Lansing, October, 2001. 88.Guide for the Preparation of Traffic Impact Studies, Cal- 75. Domestic Access Management Scan Tour Summary ifornia Department of Transportation, Sacramento, Dec. Report, prepared by Dye Management Group for Federal 2002 [Online]. Available: http://www.dot.ca.gov/hq/ Highway Administration, Washington, D.C., Dec. 2006. traffops/developserv/operationalsystems/reports/tis- guide.pdf. 76.Sweger, B., Kentucky Model Access Management Ordi- nance, Kentucky Transportation Cabinet, Division of 89. New Jersey Administrative Code, Title 16, Chapter 47: Multimodal Programs, Sep. 2003. State Highway Access Management Code, New Jersey Department of Transportation, Trenton [Online]. Avail- 77. Safe Access Is Good for Business, FHWA-HOP-06-107, able: http://www.state.nj.us/transportation/business/ EDL 14294, U.S.DOT, Federal Highway Administration, accessmgt/NJHAMC/. Office of Operations, Aug. 2006. 90.NJ Access Code Reevaluation--Final Report, New Jer- 78.Grasewicz, P., The Road to Access Management in Vir- sey Department of Transportation, Bureau of Statewide ginia, presented at the 8th National Access Management Strategies, Trenton, Mar. 2009. Conference, Baltimore, Md., July 14, 2008. 91. Trip Generation: An Informational Report, 8th ed., Insti- 79.Strategic Highway Corridors website, North Carolina tute of Transportation Engineers, Washington, D.C., Department of Transportation, Raleigh [Online]. Avail- 2008. able: http://www.ncdot.org/doh/preconstruct/tpb/shc/. 80.Facility Type & Control of Access Definitions, Systems Planning Unit, Transportation Planning Branch, North Carolina Department of Transportation, Raleigh, Aug. 2005, p. 8. 81. Indiana Department of Transportation Access Manage- ment Program website [Online]. Available: http://www. in.gov/indot/3273.htm.

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Abbreviations and acronyms used without definitions in TRB publications: AAAE American Association of Airport Executives AASHO American Association of State Highway Officials AASHTO American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials ACINA Airports Council InternationalNorth America ACRP Airport Cooperative Research Program ADA Americans with Disabilities Act APTA American Public Transportation Association ASCE American Society of Civil Engineers ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials ATA Air Transport Association ATA American Trucking Associations CTAA Community Transportation Association of America CTBSSP Commercial Truck and Bus Safety Synthesis Program DHS Department of Homeland Security DOE Department of Energy EPA Environmental Protection Agency FAA Federal Aviation Administration FHWA Federal Highway Administration FMCSA Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration FRA Federal Railroad Administration FTA Federal Transit Administration HMCRP Hazardous Materials Cooperative Research Program IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers ISTEA Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 ITE Institute of Transportation Engineers NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASAO National Association of State Aviation Officials NCFRP National Cooperative Freight Research Program NCHRP National Cooperative Highway Research Program NHTSA National Highway Traffic Safety Administration NTSB National Transportation Safety Board PHMSA Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration RITA Research and Innovative Technology Administration SAE Society of Automotive Engineers SAFETEA-LU Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (2005) TCRP Transit Cooperative Research Program TEA-21 Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (1998) TRB Transportation Research Board TSA Transportation Security Administration U.S.DOT United States Department of Transportation

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