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7 For the remaining five state DOTs that did not respond to policies and programs at the state DOT and local lev- the initial online survey, a shortened version, containing 14 els, including access classification systems (ACS), key questions, was distributed to obtain an understanding of access features, and various key access management some of the fundamental aspects of each state DOT's access techniques, including traffic signal spacing, unsignal- management programs and practices. In total, responses ized access spacing, median treatments, interchange were received from 50 state DOTs, as listed in Appendix B controls, corner clearance, and left- and right-turn (available on web version only). lanes. Other typical program elements such as access permit processes, traffic impact studies, the purchase Responses were also received from 30 counties, 10 cit- of access rights, and access design concepts are also ies, and 3 MPOs. Figure 3 summarizes the distribution in discussed. The chapter includes survey results on vari- primary job function among the 43 respondents from these ous state DOT and local program elements, including local agencies. ACS, access management techniques, access permit processes, and traffic impact studies. Chapter four provides an overview of the implemen- tation aspects of the states' access management pro- grams, including the organizational "location" of access management activities within each DOT, the types of staff members dedicated to access management, and access managementrelated resources typically con- sulted. The chapter also includes state-of-the-practice information from state DOTs and local agencies in other implementation areas, including transportation and land use coordination, access management plans (AMPs), independent studies and research, education and training activities, and community outreach. Chapter five presents synthesis findings related to the implementation of access management, includ- ing the results of a literature search and a summary FIGURE 3 Job function of local respondents (43 responses). of results and lessons learned from the survey ques- tionnaire. This chapter includes survey findings rela- Appendix B provides a list of all survey participants and tive to access managementrelated court decisions, agencies. Appendix C provides a summary of all survey areas for which additional information or resources responses (available on web version only). are needed, and information concerning states' eval- uations of their own access management programs, including the successes and strengths of these pro- Report Organization grams, barriers and difficulties encountered, and areas for improvement. This synthesis is divided into six chapters, which are as Chapter six presents profiles of contemporary access follows: management practices, highlighting key aspects of how transportation agencies develop and administer Chapter one provides background on the synthesis their access management programs. These profiles are topic, a summary of the objectives, and information noteworthy because they may be considered as state of related to the synthesis methodology and survey devel- the practice and have potential applicability for other opment. This chapter also includes an overview of the agencies. They include specific examples of unique or report organization. innovative practices related to access management. A Chapter two summarizes the legal and legislative basis range of dimensions involved with access management for access management programs and policies through- are reflected, including the legal basis, policy and pro- out the United States, based on the survey responses gram elements, implementation tools, and key techni- obtained from state DOTs and local agencies (counties, cal areas. municipalities, and MPOs). Chapter seven provides an overview of the findings Chapter three includes a detailed literature search and conclusions, and sets forth suggestions for future regarding the typical contents of access management research.