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92 In 2007, an access management bill was submitted by Establishing spacing standards for intersections, median Governor Timothy M. Kaine and approved unanimously openings, and driveways by the Virginia House and Senate. This bill added statutory Encouraging shared driveways language to the Code of Virginia expanding the powers of Providing vehicle and pedestrian connections to adjacent VDOT with respect to their authority to manage access. properties These changes included the following: Locating driveways a safe distance from the functional area of intersections and interchange ramps Giving VDOT the ability to not only construct, improve, Achieving efficient progression through proper traffic sig- and maintain the state highway system, but also to nal spacing "preserve the efficient operation" of the system. Expanding the use of right-in/right-out driveways Allowing access driveways affected by state high- Establishing corner clearance and driveway throat depths way construction or repair projects to be reviewed by Providing a process for exceptions to the regulations and VDOT and replaced in a manner that would ensure spacing standards safe and efficient highway operations. Encouraging the development of highway corridor AMPs Developing and implementing design and spacing standards for driveways, median openings, street inter- In 2008, the General Assembly adopted legislation to sections, traffic signals, and turn lanes based on the require the access management standards and regulations to federal functional classification. be implemented in phases, starting with the state's principal arterial network--including interstates, expressways, and To begin drafting statewide access management standards, other principal arterials, comprising 4,161 miles (6%) of all VDOT formed an internal Technical Committee consisting of state roadways--beginning in July 2008. The second phase, staff representing a broad range of disciplines throughout the in October 2009, extended the access management standards department, including the Central Office divisions, regions, and regulations to the state's 65,000 miles of minor arterials, districts, residencies, as well as the Virginia Transportation collectors, and local streets. Research Council. A detailed literature review was conducted of other states' access management standards to inform the Against the backdrop of the state's fiscal crisis for highway development of the Technical Committee's first draft of funding, VDOT clearly benefited from implementing access access management regulations and standards. In addition, management "at the right place at the right time." The les- VDOT formed a Policy Advisory Committee--consisting of sons learned in Virginia underscore the effectiveness of broad representatives from local government, development, envi- outreach and consensus-building among various public and ronmental, and transportation engineering organizations, as private stakeholders, as well as the importance of educating well as VDOT management and the Office of the Secretary elected officials and decision makers on how access manage- of Transportation--to obtain feedback and guide the develop- ment can make more efficient use of state highway expen- ment of the standards and regulations. ditures. VDOT is optimistic that with continued legislative support, and the associated statutory authority now in place, Furthermore, to ensure a broad outreach for public input, Virginia's access management program is well-positioned to VDOT encouraged the public to provide comments on the resist potential conflicts and external challenges in the future. proposed regulations and standards via an e-mail form on the agency website, through the mail, and in person at pub- lic hearings. News releases on the public input opportunities North Carolina Department Of were prepared for wide distribution to various media sources Transportation Strategic Corridors throughout the state, including 13 newspapers and 50 media Initiative outlets. The draft standards and regulations developed by the VDOT Technical Committee and the Policy Advisory The North Carolina Strategic Highway Corridors (SHC) ini- Committee were refined based on more than 250 pub- tiative (79) is a collaborative effort among the North Caro- lic comments. At least for proposed statewide regulations lina Department of Transportation (NCDOT), Department and standards, e-mail was the most popular and productive of Commerce, and Department of Environment and Natu- means for gaining public involvement. ral Resources to preserve and maximize mobility and con- nectivity on a core set of highway corridors throughout the In late 2007, the Policy Advisory Committee revised the state, by developing a long-range, consensus-based vision access management standards and regulations, and sub- for each corridor to guide decisions related to funding, proj- mitted their recommendations to the commissioner. The ect planning, design, driveway permit approvals, and local standards and regulations were approved and published in land use decisions. Adopted in September 2004, the pri- December 2007 and took effect in July 2008. They included mary purpose of the SHC initiative is to provide a network the following key elements: of high-speed, safe, and reliable roadways throughout the