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Index A Accidents and catastrophes Chernobyl, 189-190, 195, 197, 206, 266 flooding, 83~4, 223, 227 nuclear accident insurance, 200 risk assessment, 224 Three Mile Island (TMI), 190, 192, 194, 195, 196, 197, 265 see also Flooding, greenhouse effect; Safety Acid rain, 64 chemistry of, 87~8, 89, 91, 94 Europe, 14, 98, 99, 10~101, 104, 176, 24~247, 25~252 global, 211, 212, 214 regional, transbounda~y, general, 106, 246, 250-252 Aerosols, 94 CFCs, 80, 94, 101, 102, 104, 218 Ager-Hanssen, Henrik, 15, 17~183 Agriculture, 65, 67 climate and, 77, 223, 227, 235 fertilizer, 67, 106 plant genetics, 235 Air conditioning, 65, 67-68 - 285 efficiency, 37 Aircraft, 235 Air quality and pollution, 95-98, 207 aerosols, 94 automobiles and, 98-99, 111-140 carbon monoxide, 109, 115, 120, 121, 123 CFCs, 80, 94, 101, 102, 104, 218 economic development and, 95, 97-98 electrification and, 63-64, 68 Europe, 14, 9~101, 102-105, 246-259 fossil fuels, 36, 63-64, 102, 184, 207, 211, 227, 247 historical perspectives, 100, 102, 104, 117-118, 214 international issues, 246-260 models, 100, 122, 126-135, 247 natural gas, 171-172 ozone, 117, 120, 121-123, 124 prediction methodology, 86 108 smog, 98, 99, 100, 104, 117-118, 122, 130 standards, autos, 113, 120-122, 123, 13~135, 139 standards, international, 253, 258, 259-260 transboundary, 14, 211, 24~260 transition metals, 94

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286 urban areas, 95, 9~99, 109, 111-140, 184, 207 see also Acid rain; Carbon dioxide; Emission controls; Greenhouse effect; Nitrogen oxides; Sulfur dioxide Alaska, 14~149 Alcohol fuels, 15, 113-114, 122, 124-126, 129, 131-135, 137, 269 Algeria, 173, 174, 179 Alternative energy sources, 11, 23, 85, 231 alcohol fuels, 15, 113-114, 122, 124 126, 129, 131-135, 137, 269 automobiles, 67, 6~69, 11~114, 122-138, 161, 234 carbon monoxide, 65~6 cofiring plants, 17~171, 176 electrochemical cells, 65-66 hydrogen fuels, 14, 15, 17, 65-66, 233, 23~235 industrial boiler fuel switchability, 161-162 synfuel, 30, 32 wood fuel, 207 Ammonia, 67 Antarctic, 78, 83, 84 Atmospheric gases and trace constituents, 87-91, 99, 102 carbon monoxide, 109, 115, 120, 121, 123 CFCs, 80, 94, 101, 102, 104, 218 transition metals, 94 see also Carbon dioxide; Nitrogen oxides; Ozone, depletion; Ozone, formation; Sulfur dioxide Atmospheric sciences chemistry, 87-94 clouds, 82 83, 102 stratosphere, 94, see also Ozone, depletion synoptic, 8~95 troposphere, 102, 121, 255 see also Air quality and pollution; Climatology; Greenhouse effect Atomic Energy Act, 192 Atomic Energy Commission, 21, 22 Automobiles air pollution and, 9~99, 111-140 alternative fuels, 67, 68 69, 112-114, 122-138, 161, 234 computer simulations, emissions, 126-135 diesel fuel, 114-115 INDEX efficiency, corporate average fuel economy standards, 11, 14, 32, 38, 48, 276 electric, 67, 6~69 emission controls, 117-119, 123, 136 energy efficiency, 37-38, 41 fuel costs and efficiency, 40 nitrogen oxide emissions, 117, 118, 121, 123, 125, 126, 129, 130, 134 ozone emissions, 117, 120, 121-123, 124, 125, 129-130, 134 standards, air quality, 113, 12~122, 123, 13~135, 139 see also Gasoline Automotive Consumer Profile, 137 B Balzhiser, Richard E., 5, 1~17, 184-201 Batteries, 65, 244 automobiles, electric, 67, 68-69 Beaufort Sea, 149 Behnke, Wallace B., 5, 12, 238-245 Belgium, 187, 189 Biotechnology, 235, 275 Blair, Peter D., 5, 9, 11, 12, 35-51 Bookout, John F., 4, 145-164 Brazil, 114, 122, 269 Building energy efficiency, 26, 47 C California, 117-118, 120, 121, 130, 131-136, 139, 185 Calvert Cliffs nuclear plant, 19~191 Canada, 29, 168, 235, 246, 247, 251, 255 Cancer, 199 Capital investment electrification, 5~55, 242, 273 emission controls, 256 energy efficiency and, 47, 51 gas- as coal-fueled electric generation, 171-172 nuclear power, 192, 198, 200 oil industry, 153, 154-155, 160 see also Industrial plants and equipment Carbon dioxide, 7, 106, 165, 213-236 atmospheric transport, 93, 94 auto emissions, 115, 117 conservation and, 33 electric power generation, 6~64, 271

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INDEX greenhouse effect and, 76-84 (passim), 93-95, 102, 184, 207, 213, 214-216 Carbon monoxide as fuel, 65~6 pollution, 109, 115, 120, 121, 123 Catalytic converted, 118, 123, 258 Ceramics, 65 Chemistry atmospheric, 87-94, 131; see also Acid rain: chemistry of; Air quality and pollution; Smog Chernobyl, 189-190, 195, 197, 206, 266 China, 79~0 Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), 80, 94, 101, 102, 104, 218 Cities, see Urban areas Clean Air Act, 113 Climatology, 216-218 drought, 223 electrical load patterns and, 65 manipulation of, 82-83 models, 9, 76-78, 82, 102, 21~222 population patterns, 65, 67 68 projections, 9, 75-78, 82, 218-224 regional, 219 see also Greenhouse effect Clouds, 82~3, 102 Coal, 22, 64, 104, 165, 184, 207, 233, 246, 269 cofiring with natural gas, 17~171, 176 Europe, 176, 256 fluidized bed combustion, 185 gasification, 65, 185 gasoline, conversion to, 269 nuclear generation vs. costs, 188 shortages, 1~11 synfuel, 30, 32 Cofiring plants, 170-171, 176 Colorado, 123 Committee on Atmospheric Sciences, 81-83 Committee on Electricity in Economic Growth, 53, 55 Committee on Nuclear and Alternative Energy Systems, 23, 3~38, 41, 224 Commodity prices, 145-146 Communications, 68, 69 Computers information sciences, 68, 244 supercomputers, 130-131 Computer simulations 287 automobile fuels, air quality, 126-135 chemical kinetics, 130 climatologic, 8, 9, 76-78, 102, 218-222 electrical systems engineering, 244 marine, 78 Conservation, 12, 25-26, 239 automobiles, 37-38, 6~69 federal government, 35 greenhouse effect and, 81 national policy, 22, 28, 33 social factom, 27 see also Efficiency Consumers automobile fuels, 136-138 oiVnatural gas, retail, 16~161 Consumption automotive petroleum, 116 developing as developed countries, 266 electricity and GNP, 54, 55-63, 206 207 historical perspectives, 7 oil and gas, 163, 166, 17~177 pollution associated with, 255-256 see also Supply/demand Continental shelves, see Onshore energy sources Convention on Long-Range ltansboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP), 252, 256, 257-258, 25~260 Cool Water project, 185 Cooperative Program for Monitoring and Evaluation of Long-Range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe, 246 247, 254, 259 Corporate average fuel economy standards (CAFE), 11, 14, 32, 38, 48, 276 Council for Energy Awareness, 198 Council of Academies of Engineering and -Technological Sciences, 275 Court decisions, see Litigation Czechoslovakia, 187, 254 D Darmstadter, J. L~, 9~100, 102, 104 Demand, see Supply/demand Demography, see Population factors Denmark, 176 Department of Energy, 32, 194-195 Deregulation, see Regulation/deregulation Developing countries, 31, 207, 276 aid to, 77 electrification, 60 62

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288 energy consumption, 266 Diesel fuel, 114-115 Disasters, see Accidents and catastrophes; Flooding, greenhouse effect District of Columbia, 118 Drought, 223 E Economic factors, 2-3, 267 air quality and development, 95, 97-98 carbon dioxide pollution, 79, 115-116, 223-224 electrification, 68, 239-240, 241-242 futures trading, oil, 146-147 greenhouse effect, 223 224 international pollution policy, 258 natural gas, 153, 155, 16~171, 173-183 nuclear power, 186 188, 189, 190, 191-192, 195-197, 198, 199 oil industry, 145-163 privatization, 176, 269 projections, 276 see also Capital investment; Consumers; Consumption; Efficiency; Foreign trade; Gross National Product; Industrial capacity and utilization; Prices; Production and productivity; Supply/demand Efficiency, 265-276 automobile operating costs and, 40, 67, 6~69, 112, 115, 137; corporate average fuel economy standards, 11, 14, 32, 38, 48, 276 building energy efficiency, 26, 47 capital investment, 47, 51 cofiring plants, 170-171 electricity and, 3~38, 46-47, 49, 54, 64, 184, 239 greenhouse effect and, 231-232 history, 14-15, 35-43 household appliances, 3~38, 46-47, 49 natural gas end use, 169, 17~171, 176 oil industry, 49, 50, 149-151, 231 prices and, 14, 36-38, 50, 231 projections, 35-36, 43-51, 273-274 supply/demand, 50, 273-274 technology, 35, 39, 43 see also Conservation Electric power, 5~70, 184, 23~247 air quality and, 63-64, 68 INDEX automobiles, 67, 6~69 batteries, 65, 67, 6~69, 244 capital investment, 54-55, 242, 273 cofiring plants, 17~171, 176 deregulation, 241-243 developing countries, 6~62 electrochemistry, 65-66 environmental implications, 62-66, 68, 184, 273 Europe, 57 GNP and, 54, 55-63, 239; global, 59-63 historical perspectives, 23-30, 53-63 natural gas, 65 66, 17~171, 176, 271 plant cooling systems, 65 policy, national, 26, 70 population factors, 59, 60, 61, 65, 67~8, 69 prices, 242-243 projections, 52, 59 60, 61, 63-70, 206-207, 23~239 regulation, 28, 41, 50, 241-243 reliability, 240-241, 243-244 safety, 243 social factors, 60, 67-69, 70 Soviet Union, 58, 60 supply/demand, 23~240 technology, 54-55, 61, 66 69, 70, 239, 244 245 transmission, 65, 240-241, 242-244 see also Hydroelectricity; Nuclear power Electric Power Research Institute, 55, 65, 66, 193, 194, 195 Emission controls alternatives, 82~3, 94 automobiles, 117-119, 123, 136, 138 140 catalytic converters, 118, 123, 258 greenhouse gases, 79 80, 81 investment, 256 nitrogen oxides, cofirirLg plants, 17~171 see also Standards: air quality, autos Energy for a Sustainable World, 267 Energy resewes natural gas, 2~29, 62, 147-149, 166 168, 173, 174 oil, 147-149, 155, 156, 173 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 205, 20S, 227 air quality standards, 121, 135 ambient pollution data, 119-121, 122-123 corporate average fuel economy standards, 11, 14, 32, 38, 48, 276

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INDEX Environment and pollution, 2, 3, 5, 75-140, 205-212 electrification, 6206, 68, 184, 273 energy efficiency and, 41 Europe, 14, 97, 9~101, 102-105, 24~259 fossil fuels, 36, 6~64, 102, 184, 207, 211 global, 8, 63 66, 75~4, 101-109, 198, 205-206, 21~211; see also Greenhouse effect; Ozone, depletion; Ozone, formation historical perspectives, general, 7-10, 20~209 hydroelectricity, 62-63, 64 legislation, 113, 117, 184 185, 191 metal corrosion, 101, 103, 104 natural gas, 15, 171-172, 233 nuclear power, 6, 16, 32-33, 62-63, 64, 8~81, 189-197, 194, 199, 207, 233 regional forces, 85-109, 24~260 waste management, 64, 66, 194, 199, 231 see also Air quality and pollution; Climatology; Water systems and pollution Ethanol, 113, 114, 122, 123, 269 Europe acid rain, 14, 98, 99, 10~101, 104, 176, 246 247, 25~252 coal, 176, 256 electricity generation, 57 environmental issues, 14, 97, 9~101, 102-105, 246-260 natural gas, 173-183, 256 nuclear power, 176, 186 188, 195, 269 oil demand, 8 railroad, high-speed, 273 see also specific colmtries European Communities, 176, 235, 250, 254-255 Exploration for oil, prices and incentive for, 50, 149-153, 157 Exports and imports; see Foreign trade F Federal action, see Government role Federal Energy Regulator Commission, 241 Fertilizer, 67, 106 Finland, 187 Flooding, greenhouse effect, 83 84, 223, 227 289 Food sciences, 67 Ford Foundation, 23 Ford Motor Company, 124 Forecasts, see Projections Foreign countries, see Developing countries; Europe; International perspectives; Middle East; specific countries Foreign trade climatically dependent crops, 235 natural gas trade by Western Europe, 17~183 (passim) nuclear facilities, 198 oil imports, 11, 45, 49, 50, 15~159, 198, 269; see also Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countnes Formaldehyde, 129-130, 135 Fossil fuels, 8, 14 electrification and, 62-64 environmental issues, 36, 63~4, 102, 184, 207, 211, 227, 247 GNP and consumption, 24, 163 greenhouse effect, 63, 75-84 (passim), 184, 211, 266 see also Coal France, 27, 28, 186, 187, 246, 269, 273 Friseh, J. R., 59~2 Futures trading, oil prices, 146-147 G Gas, see Natural gas Gasoline, 11~114 alternative fuels, 67, 68-69, 112-114, 122-138, 161, 234 coal/natural gas, conversion to, 269 corporate average fuel economy standards, 11, 14, 32, 38, 48, 276 economies, as natural gas, 169 retail sector, 16~161, 169-170 unleaded, 118 Gas Research Institute, 2~29, 169 Gas turbines, 65, 171, 234 General Public Utilities, 190 Genetic engineering, 235 Geology glaeiology, 78, 83 84 oil/natural gas, 149, 156-157 Geopolitics, 8, 70 air pollution, transbounda~y, 14, 98, 99, 10~101, 104, 106, 176, 211, 246-260 see also Europe

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290 Germany, Federal Republic, 79, 235, 245, 247, 254 Gibbons, John H., 5, 9, 11, 12, 35-51 Glaciology, 78, 83-84 Global systems and effects acid rain, 211, 212, 214 efficiency and, 26~267 electrification, 59 66, 68 environmental, 8, 63 66, 75-84, 101-109, 198, 205-206, 210-211 ozone depletion, 80, 101 ultraviolet absorption, 101 see also Climatology; Greenhouse effect; Ozone, depletion Government role, 2, 14-15, 32 energy efficiency, 35 litigation, 190 191, 246, 260 oil/natural gas lease sales, 153 state-level action, 117-118, 123, 136, 171-172 see also Legislation; Policy issues; Regulation/deregulation; Standards Graedel, Thomas E., 4-5, 8, 85-110 Graz Seminar on the Control of Sulfur and Nitrogen Oxides from Stationary Sources, 256 Greenhouse effect, 9-10, 75~4, 101-102 carbon dioxide and, 76-84 (passim), 94, 95, 102, 184, 207, 213, 214-216 fossil fuels, 63, 75~4 (passim), 184, 211, 266 international agreements, 79 80, 83, 211, 235 methane, 15, 231, 233 models, 7~ nitrogen oxides, 218 risk assessment, 224, 233 Gross National Product electrification and, 54, 55~3, 239; global, 59-63 energy and, 23-26, 39, 41, 45, 54, 55, 275 oil and gas consumption and, 163 Gulf of Mexico, 149, 159 H Haagen-Smit, Arie J., 117 Hayek, Fredrick, 32 Health Effects Institute, 135 Heat, see Thermal conditions and effects Heat pumps, 65, 68 Helm, John L., 1-17, 213-237 INDEX Historical perspectives, 2-3, 1~11, 21-33 air quality, 100, 102, 104, 117-118, 214 auto fuels, 112-115 climate change, effects, 76, 217-218 electrical power, 23-30, 53-63 energy efficiency, 14-15, 35-43 environmental issues, general, 7-10, 2(~209 GNP and energy, 23-26, 39, 41, 45, 54, 55, 275 liquid fuels, 114-115 nuclear power, 19~191, see also Chernobyl; Three Mile Island oil/natural gas industry, 145-160 (passim), 174-175 ozone levels, Europe, 100 prices, 14 see also Projections The Horseless Age, 112 Household appliances, 4~47, 49 air conditioners, 37, 65, 67 68 heat pumps, 65, 68 refrigerators, 3~37, 38, 67, 94 Hugo, Victor, 86 Human factom, 193-194, 267 see also Management; Social factors Hungary, 187 Hurricanes, 82, 83 Hydrocarbons, 218 auto emission, 115, 117, 118, 123-126 (passim), 129, 130, 131, 134, 135 see also Natural gas; Petroleum and petroleum products Hydroelectricity, 24, 62 environmental factors, 62 63, 64 hydrogen fuel production, 235 Norway, 176 Hydrogen fuels, 14, 15, 17, 233, 234-235 electrochemical cells, 65 66 Imports and exports, see Foreign trade Incrementalism, 2~30, 32-33 Independent power producers, 241-242 Industrial capacity and utilization electric power, 240, 243 nuclear, 186 188, 207 oil refineries, 147-149, 159-160 Industrial plants and equipment boiler fuel switchability, 162, 170 Calvert Cliffs nuclear plant, 19~191

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INDEX Chernobyl nuclear plant, 189-190, 195, 197, 206, 266 electrical transmission, 65, 240-241, 242-244 electrification and, 53-55, 67 electrochemical, 65~6 energy efficiency, 47 gas turbines, 65, 171, 234 nuclear, 186-188, 190, 192, 194, 195-196, 198 oil/gas industry, 149-151, 159-161, 166 167, 168, 178-179 pipelines, 178-180 power/fuel plants, 29-30, 192 Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear plant, 190, 192, 194, 195, 196, 197, 265 Information sciences, 68, 244 Infrastructure, see Industrial plants and equipment Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineem, 243 Institute of Nuclear Power Operations, 193, 194, 195 Insurance, nuclear accident victims, 200 International Atomic Energy Agency, 18~189 International perspectives, 3031 agreements, policy criteria, 257-260 air pollution, transboundary, 14, 98, 99, 10~101, 104, 106, 176, 211, 246 260 greenhouse effect agreements, 79-80, 83, 211, 235 hydrogen fuel, Canada-Europe agreement R&D, 235 nuclear power, 186-188, 195, 198 oil, foreign dependence, 6, 8-9, 55 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, 23, 60, 79, 80, 250, 267, 269 ozone, agreements, 80, 101; Europe, 100, 101, 104 volatile organic compounds, agreements, 255 see also Developing countries; Europe; Foreign trade; Global systems and effects; Middle East; Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries; specific counties Investment, see Capital investment Irrigation, 65 Israel, 8 291 J Jacobi, HenIy, 276 Japan, 8, 28, 3~31, 186, 195, 209 Joint Committee on Atomic Energy, 33 K Kellogg, William, 231 Keynes, Maynard, 32 Kieschnick, William F., 1-17 Korea, Republic of, 187, 195, 209 L Labor unions, coal strike, 11 Lasem, 66-67 Law, see Legislation; Litigation; Regulation/deregulation; Standards Lead, 118, 120 Legislation Atomic Energy Act, 192 Clean Air Act, 113 environmental, general, 117, 20~209 National Environmental Policy Act, 191 nuclear waste, 194 Power Plant and Industrial Fuel Use Act of 1978, 50 Price-Anderson Act, 200 Public Utilities Regulatory Policy Act of 1978, 28, 241 see also Regulation/deregulation; Standards Liquefied natural gas, 15, 123, 178, 180, 182 Liquefied petroleum gas, 122 Liquid fuels, 41, 234 automobiles, 112-114, 122-136 see also Alcohol fuels; Diesel fuel; Ethanol; Gasoline; Methanol Litigation, 190-191, 246, 260 Lovelock, James, 86 Lovins, Amory, 23 M Machiavelli, Niccolo, 276 Malone, Thomas F., 81~3 Malpas, Robert, 6, 8, 12, 16, 265-277 Management gasoline, retail, 160 nuclear power, 193

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292 Manufacturing, see Industrial plants and equipment Marine environments Beaufort Sea, 149 greenhouse effect, 77, 78, 83~4, 211, 227 Gulf of Mexico, 149, 159 North Sea, 179 Norwegian Continental Shelf, 174, 176, 17~180 offshore energy sources, 148, 156, 174, 176, 17~180 Prudhoe Bay, 148, 156 Mathematical models dimatologic, 82, 21~222 global electrification and GNP, 61, 62 oil/gas economics, 153-158 see also Computer simulations McCormick, William T., Jr., 12, 15, 165-172 Mead, Margaret, 231 Metals, corrosion, 101, 103, 104 Methane, 102, 231, 234 as greenhouse gas, 15, 231, 233 see also Natural gas Methanol, 15, 113, 123, 124-126, 129-130, 131-135, 137 Methyl tertiary butyl ether, 123 Metropolitan areas, see Urban areas Mexico, 246 Middle East, 8, 50 see also Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries Models, 13-14, 100 air pollution, 100, 122, 126-135, 247 greenhouse effect, 7~ systems theory, oil industry, 161-163 see also Computer simulations; Mathematical models Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer, 80, 101 Motor vehicles, see Automobiles N National Academy of Engineering, 275 National Environmental Policy Act, 191 National Petroleum Council, 153, 157-158 National Research Council Committee on Atmospheric Sciences, 81~3 INDEX Committee on Electricity in Economic Growth, 53, 55 Committee on Nuclear and Alternative Energy Systems, 23, 36 38, 41, 224 Energy Engineering Board, 53 Natural gas cofiring with coal, 17~}171, 176 compressed, 123, 124 economics, 153, 155, 16~171, 173-183 efficiency of end use, 169, 17~171, 176 electric generation technology, 65-66, 17~171, 176, 271 environmental factors, 15, 171-172, 233 Europe, 173-183, 256 gasoline, conversion to, 269 gas turbines, 65, 171, 234 liquefied, 15, 122, 123, 178, 180, 182 nitrogen oxides, 170-171 prices, 153, 166, 169-170, 184, 188 production, 147-149, 153, 155, 167-169 projected role, 28-29, 153, 165-172, 174-176 regulation, 171-172 reserves, 28-29, 62, 147-149, 16~168, 173, 174 safety, 171-172 Soviet Union, 173, 174, 176, 179 sulfur dioxide, 171 technological advances, 156-157 transportation, 168, 178-182, 183 The Netherlands, 122, 173, 195 New York, 122 New Zealand, 269 Nitrogen oxides, 272 auto emissions, 117, 118, 121, 123, 125, 126, 129, 130, 134 greenhouse effect, 218 natural gas and, 170-171 regional environment, 99, 100, 102, 246, 249, 251, 255, 256, 259-260 Nixon administration, 22 North American Electric Reliability Council, 239, 243 North Sea, 179 Norway, 17~174, 176, 178-180, 247 Nuclear power, 16-17, 30, 62, 165 accidents, 189-190, 192, 194, 195, 197, 206, 256, 265 Calvert Clitts nuclear plant, 190-191 capacity, 18~188, 207

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INDEX Chernobyl nuclear plant, 189-190, 195, 197, 206, 266 economics and policy development, 14, 21, 22, 23, 27, 18~200 environmental issues, 6, 16, 32-33, 62~3, 64, 80 81, 189-197, 199, 207, 233 Europe, 176, 180188, 195, 269 exports of facilities, 198 history, 190 191 plant cooling systems, 65 regulation, 191, 192~195, 196-197 safety, 16, 32-33, 63, 81, 189-197, 199, 207, 276 social factors, 190, 192, 197-198, 199 Soviet Union, 62-63, 187, 189-190, 195, 197, 206, 266 technological innovation, 193, 194, 195-196, 197, 198, 245 Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear plant, 190, 192, 194, 195, 196, 197, 265 waste management, 194, 199 Nuclear reactom advanced light water reactors, 195-196 liquid metal reactors, 196 modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactors, 196 Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 192, 193-195 Nuclear Utility Management and Human Resources Council, 193 o Oceans, see Marine environments Offshore energy sources Gulf of Mexico, 149, 159 North Sea, 179-180 Norwegian Continental Shelf, 174, 176, 178-180 Prudhoe Bay, 148, 156 Oil, see Petroleum and petroleum products Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, 23, 60, 79, 80, 250, 267, 269 Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, 6, ~10, 11, 44, 188, 198 Our Common Future, 206 Ozone, depletion, 214 Europe, 100, 101, 104 Montreal Protocol, 80, 101 stratosphere, 94 2793 Ozone, formation automobiles and, 117, 120, 121-123, 124, 125, 129-130, 134 urban areas, 99, 120 volatile organic compounds, 255 p Paley Commission, 22 Pennsylvania Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear plant, 190, 192, 194, 195, 196, 197, 265 urban air pollution, Philadelphia, 130 Pesticides, 66 Petroleum and petroleum products automotive use, 116, see also Gasoline economics, 145-163 exploration, 50, 149-153, 157 foreign trade, 11, 45, 49, 50, 15~159, 198, 269; see also Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries investments, 153, 154-155, 160 liquefied petroleum gas, 122 prices, 2, 4, 8-11, 50, 145-147, 148-153, 155, 156-158, 160, 184, 188, 231 production, 147-153, 155, 15~160 projections, 153-156, 157 reserves, 49, 50, 147-149, 155, 156, 173 retail trade, 160 revenues, 151-153, 157 strategic petroleum reserve, 49, 50 sulfur, refineries, 159 synfuel, 30, 32 systems theory of, 161-163 Photovoltaics, see Solar energy Pipelines, 17~181, 235 Planning, ~7, 13-14 incrementalism, 2~30, 32-33 national energy system, 1-17 see also Projections Plasma chemistry and physics, 66 67 Policy issues, 1-17, 276 automobile emissions, 136 carbon dioxide pollution, 224, 227, 231-236 conservation, 22, 2S, 33 electrification, national, 26, 70 energy demand and, 39 greenhouse effect, 224, 227, 231-236 incrementalism, 20-30, 32-33 international agreements, 257-260

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294 natural gas, Europe, 176 nuclear power, 22, 184 200 Politics carbon dioxide pollution, 223-224 greenhouse effect, 223, 234-235 nuclear power, 190, 192, 197-198, 199 see also Geopolitics Pollution, see Environment and pollution Population factors, 6, 21, 4506 air quality and, 98 climate and, 65, 67 68, 76, 79-80 electrification, 59, 60, 61, 65, 67-68, 69 see also Urban areas Poro v. Lorraine Basm Coaknmes, 246 Potential Gas Committee, 166 Power Plant and Industrial Fuel Use Act of 1978, 50 Price-Anderson Act, 200 Prices, 2-3, 6 efficiency and, 14, 3~38, 50, 231, 268 elasticity, 3 - , 39 electricity, 242~243 energy demand, 39 exploration incentive and, 50 GNP and, 41 hydrogen fuel, 234 natural gas, 153, 166, 169-170, 184, 188 oil, 2, 4, 8-11, 50, 145-147, 148-153, 155, 15~158, 160, 184, 188, 231 Privatization, 176, 269 Production and productivity agricultural, 77 electricity and, 23-26, 53, 239 natural gas, 147-149, 153, 155, 167-169 oil and gas, 147-149, 153, 155, 270 see also Industrial capacity and utilization; Supply/demand Project Independence, 26 Projections, ~3, 26, 2~30, 32 air pollution, methodology, 86-108 climate, 9, 75-78, 82, 218-224 economic evaluations, 276 electric power, 52, 59-60, 61, 6~70, 206 207, 23~239 energy efficiency, 35-36, 43-51, 27~274 environment and development, 205-207 Japan growth, 34}31 natural gas, 28-29, 153, 165-172, 17~176 oil industry economics, 15~156, 157 supply/demand, 8, 21-23, 30 31 INDEX see also Planning Prudhoe Bay, 148, 156 Public health, see Safety Public Utilities Regulatory Policy Act of 1978, 28, 241 Putnam, P., 21-22 Q Qualified generating facilities, 242 R Railroads, 10? 68, 233-234, 273 Ray, Dixie Lee, 22 Refractory materials, 65 Refrigerators, 36 37, 38, 67, 92 Regional approaches acid rain, 106, 246, 250-252 air pollution, transbounda~y, 14, 99, 100-101, 104, 106, 176, 211, 246-260 climatic response, 219 electrification, 60, 65 environmental, 85-109, 109, 246-260 greenhouse gases, 81 nitrogen oxides, 99, 100, 102, 246, 249, 251, 255, 256, 259-260 sulfur dioxide, 99, 101, 106, 260 Regulation/deregulation, 2 electric power, 241-243 emission controls, 117-119 natural gas, 50, 166, 171-172 nuclear industry, 191, 192-195, 196-197 public utilities, 28, 50 see also Environmental Protection Agency; Standards Research and development, see Technological innovation Retail trade gasoline, 160 161 natural gas as gasoline, 169-170 Risk assessment carbon dioxide pollution, 224, 233 energy generation, 224, 225-226, 22~230 Ruckelshaus, William D., 5, 8, 11-12, 205-212 S Safety electric transmission, 243 natural gas, 171-172

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INDEX nuclear power, 16, 32-33, 63, 81, 189-197, 199, 207, 276 see also Accidents and catastrophes Sand, Peter H., 5, 246-264 Scandinavia, 176, 18~181 see also Denmark; Finland; Norway; Sweden Schelling, Thomas C., 4, 9, 75~4 Schneider, Stephen H., 213-237 Seismic imaging, 149 Shell Oil Company, 14~147 Shiller, John W., 5, 111-142 Ships and shipping, liquefied natural gas, 180, 182 Smog, 98, 99, 100, 104, 117-118, 122, 130 Social factors, 5-6, 9, 268 269, 275 carbon dioxide pollution, 223-224 climate change, 65, 67-68, 219, 223-224 demand, 7-8, 27 electrification, 60, 67-69, 70 labor unions, 11 natural gas, 171-172 nuclear power, 190, 192, 197-198, 199 see also Consumers; Politics; Population factors; Safety Soil sciences, 106 107 Solar energy, 30, 64, 185, 245 South Africa, 269 South African Coal, Oil, and Gas Corporation, 30 Southern California Edison, 185 Soviet Union air pollution, transboundaIy, 247 Chernobyl, 189-190, 195, 197, 206, 266 electrification, 58, 60, greenhouse gas control, 79 hydroelectric power, 62-63 natural gas, 173, 174, 176, 179 nuclear power, 62-63, 187, 195 Standards air pollution, international, 253, 258, 259-260 air quality, autos, 113, 12~122, 123, 134-135, 139 building energy efficiency, 26 corporate average fuel economy 295 European emission data, 247 Statutes, see Legislation Strategic petroleum reserve (SPR), 49, 50 Stratospheric ozone, 94 see also Ozone, depletion State-level action auto emissions, 117-118, 123, 136 natural gas regulation, 171-172 see also specific states State of Georgia v. Tennessee Cooper Company and Ducktown SulpAtlr; Copper and Iran Company, Lt~, 260 Sulfur dioxide, 165, 189, 218, 272 coal, 165 desulfur~ation, oil refineries, 159 Europe, transboundaIy pollution, 246, 247, 248, 254, 255-257, 259 natural gas, 171 regional pollution, 99, 101, 106, 260 see also Acid rain Supercomputers, 130 131 Supp~/demand, 2-7, 11-12, 2~27 efficiency and, 50, 273-274 electricity, 238 240 GNP and, 23-26, 39, 41, 45, 61 investment and, 6 natural gas, Europe, 173-183 oil, Europe, 8 projections, 8, 21-23, 30 31 technology and, 11 see also Conservation; Consumption; Efficiency; Energy reserves; Production and productivity Sweden, 176, 254 Switzerland, 247 Synergism, 17 Synfuel, 30, 32 Systems theory oil industry, 161-163 see also Global systems and effects; Planning T standards, 11, 14, 32, 38, 48, 276 nuclear power, 193, 195-196 Starr, Chauncey, 7, 12, 52-71, 238 Statistical programs and activities EPA air pollution data, 119-121, 122-123 Taiwan, 187, 195, 209 Tankers, liquefied natural gas, 180, 182 lynxes greenhouse erect, 235 oil industry windfalls, 151, 163 prices and, 14

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296 Technological innovation, 3, 7-8, 12-13, 17, 33, 267-269 biotechnology and plant genetics, 235, 275 catalytic converters, 118, 123, 258 climate manipulation, 82~3 cofiring generating plants, 17~171, 176 efficiency, 35, 39, 43 electric power, 5~55, 61, 66 69, 70, 239, 24~245 fluidized bed combustion, 185 gasoline, retail sector, 160 gas turbines, 65, 171, 234 greenhouse gases, 81 information sciences, 68, 244 natural gas, 156-157 nuclear power, 193, 194, 195-196, 197, 198, 245 oil and natural gas, 149, 156-157, 158, 168, 169, 170, 180, 182 solar energy, 30, 64, 185, 245 supply/demand and, 11 tankers, 180, 182 see also Alternative energy sources Television, 69 Texas, 121-122 Thermal conditions and effects, water pollution, 65 see also Greenhouse erect Three Mile Island (TMI), 190, 192, 194, 195, 196, 197, 265 Trail Smelter; 246 Transition metals, 94 Transportation aircraft, 235 greenhouse effect and infrastructure, 233-234 hydrogen fuel for public transportation, 235 natural gas, 169, 17~182, 183 pipelines, 17~181, 235 railroads, 10, 68, 233-234, 273 tankers, liquefied natural gas, 180, 182 see also Automobiles 1~11 Field, 179 Tropospheric ozone, 102, 121, 255 U United Kingdom, 176, 180, 254, 273 United Nations, 60, 251, 253, 258, 259 Urban areas, 68, 69, 118 INDEX air pollution, 95, 9~99, 109, 111-140, 184, 207 greenhouse erects, 76, 81, 233, 234 transportation, 234-235 U.S.S.R., see Soviet Union V Volatile organic compounds, 255 W War Arab-Israeli War of 1967, 8 World War I, 10, 11 World War II, 32 Waste management, 66 coal ashr 64 landfill methane releases, 231 nuclear, 194, 199 Water systems and pollution electric plant cooling, 65 greenhouse effect, 223 see also Acid rain; Hydroelectricity; Marine environments Weinberg, Alvin M., 3 - , 21-34 White, Robert M., 69 Wood fuel, 207 World Association of Nuclear Operators, 195 World Bank, 60 World Commission on Environment and Development, 205-207, 209, 211-212 World Energy Conference, 31, 59~2