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23 The literature review makes clear that aging has a pro- both the research and the large truck crash data support this found effect on the human mind and body, with a present stance. Most important is the evidence showing that loss of emphasis on changes known to impair drivers' capabilities function for any driver underlies a higher risk of crash causa- in ways that are recognized as crash risk factors. However, tion, regardless of age. much of that literature is based on research performed on significantly older persons than one finds in the commercial driver population. Even for the general driving population, it Conclusions is uncommon to find studies showing a significant increase in crash risk for persons age 70 or younger. The synthesis findings suggest that older persons who are currently commercial drivers pose no greater safety risk The literature review also suggests that, even with the than their younger and middle-aged counterparts. physical and cognitive changes in older persons, older driv- ers can often compensate for those changes by making Some decline--which varies greatly from individual to better decisions and demonstrating better judgment while individual--in the visual, cognitive, and psychomotor abili- driving. The Llaneras et al. (1995) research, which studied ties needed to drive safely is inevitable with normal aging, active CDL drivers of all ages, showed that drivers over age with the diseases that are more common among older peo- 60 made fewer errors and had fewer near misses than their ple, and with the medications used to treat them. Therefore, younger counterparts. Although this study was conducted in as the number of older persons, including professional truck a driving simulator, feedback from industry indicates that drivers grows larger, it is important that crash data con- these data support the general view of the older commercial tinue to be monitored for any trends that differ from these driver. findings. Although the research data on older persons and older The need for minimum qualifications for medical fitness drivers in general are quite broad, the research findings for to drive that are evidence-based, and are fairly and consis- older commercial drivers is quite limited. The Llaneras et al. tently applied, is widely recognized. However, the literature (1995) study noted previously strongly suggests that healthy, review and interviews conducted for this study show no rea- active older commercial drivers need not provide an exag- son that older commercial drivers should be treated differ- gerated risk to traffic safety. Although counterintuitive, ently by CDL testing and licensing jurisdictions.