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NATIONAL NCHRP REPORT 680 COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Manual for Emulsion-Based Chip Seals for Pavement Preservation

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TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2011 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* OFFICERS CHAIR: Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore VICE CHAIR: Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY Larry L. Brown, Sr., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Norfolk, VA William A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles Eugene A. Conti, Jr., Secretary of Transportation, North Carolina DOT, Raleigh James M. Crites, Executive Vice President of Operations, Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport, TX Paula J. Hammond, Secretary, Washington State DOT, Olympia Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Regional General Manager, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Mandeville, LA Steven T. Scalzo, Chief Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, WA Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO Beverly A. Scott, General Manager and CEO, Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority, Atlanta, GA David Seltzer, Principal, Mercator Advisors LLC, Philadelphia, PA Lawrence A. Selzer, President and CEO, The Conservation Fund, Arlington, VA Kumares C. Sinha, Olson Distinguished Professor of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN Daniel Sperling, Professor of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science and Policy; Director, Institute of Transportation Studies; and Interim Director, Energy Efficiency Center, University of California, Davis Kirk T. Steudle, Director, Michigan DOT, Lansing Douglas W. Stotlar, President and CEO, Con-Way, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin Carolann D. Wicks, Secretary, Delaware DOT, Dover EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Peter H. Appel, Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT J. Randolph Babbitt, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA George Bugliarello, President Emeritus and University Professor, Polytechnic Institute of New York University, Brooklyn; Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC Anne S. Ferro, Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S.DOT John T. Gray, Senior Vice President, Policy and Economics, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC David T. Matsuda, Deputy Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT Victor M. Mendez, Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC Tara O'Toole, Under Secretary for Science and Technology, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC Robert J. Papp (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC Cynthia L. Quarterman, Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Peter M. Rogoff, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT David L. Strickland, Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Joseph C. Szabo, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT Polly Trottenberg, Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy, U.S.DOT Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC Barry R. Wallerstein, Executive Officer, South Coast Air Quality Management District, Diamond Bar, CA *Membership as of February 2011.

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM NCHRP REPORT 680 Manual for Emulsion-Based Chip Seals for Pavement Preservation Scott Shuler Anthony Lord COLORADO STATE UNIVERSITY Fort Collins, CO Amy Epps-Martin Denise Hoyt TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY College Station, TX Subscriber Categories Maintenance and Preservation Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2011 www.TRB.org

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY NCHRP REPORT 680 RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed research provides the most effective Project 14-17 approach to the solution of many problems facing highway ISSN 0077-5614 administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local ISBN 978-0-309-15539-7 interest and can best be studied by highway departments individually Library of Congress Control Number 2011921469 or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the 2011 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. accelerating growth of highway transportation develops increasingly complex problems of wide interest to highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of COPYRIGHT INFORMATION cooperative research. Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining In recognition of these needs, the highway administrators of the written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials published or copyrighted material used herein. initiated in 1962 an objective national highway research program Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this employing modern scientific techniques. This program is supported on publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of the FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, Association and it receives the full cooperation and support of the method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for Federal Highway Administration, United States Department of educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission Transportation. from CRP. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies was requested by the Association to administer the research program because of the Board's recognized objectivity and understanding of NOTICE modern research practices. The Board is uniquely suited for this purpose as it maintains an extensive committee structure from which The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; it the Governing Board of the National Research Council. possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and to review this state and local governmental agencies, universities, and industry; its report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. relationship to the National Research Council is an insurance of The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved objectivity; it maintains a full-time research correlation staff of by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. specialists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the research directly to those who are in a position to use them. researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation The program is developed on the basis of research needs identified Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. by chief administrators of the highway and transportation departments The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research and by committees of AASHTO. Each year, specific areas of research Council, and the sponsors of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not needs to be included in the program are proposed to the National endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Research Council and the Board by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. Research projects to fulfill these needs are defined by the Board, and qualified research agencies are selected from those that have submitted proposals. Administration and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Research Council and the Transportation Research Board. The needs for highway research are many, and the National Cooperative Highway Research Program can make significant contributions to the solution of highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement rather than to substitute for or duplicate other highway research programs. Published reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transporta- tion Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board's varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individu- als interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP REPORT 680 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Amir N. Hanna, Senior Program Officer Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Doug English, Editor NCHRP PROJECT 14-17 PANEL Field of Maintenance--Area of Maintenance of Way and Structures Edward J. Denehy, The Gorman Group, Great Barrington, MA (formerly New York State DOT) (Chair) John Vance, Mississippi DOT, Jackson, MS John W. Collins, John W. Collins, LLC, Baton Rouge, LA (formerly Louisiana DOTD) F. M. "Rick" Harvey, Wyoming DOT, Cheyenne, WY Kevin Kennedy, Michigan DOT, Lansing, MI Joseph A. Mickes, Quixote Transportation Safety, Jefferson City, MO Luis Rodriguez, FHWA Liaison Frank N. Lisle, TRB Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported herein was performed under NCHRP Project 14-17 by the Department of Con- struction Management at Colorado State University (CSU) and the department of civil engineering at Texas A&M University (TAMU). CSU was the prime contractor with TAMU as a subcontractor. The work was done under the general supervision of Dr. Scott Shuler, Associate Professor of Construc- tion Management at CSU, who served as the Principal Investigator. The other authors of this report are Anthony Lord, Ph.D. candidate and Research Assistant at CSU, Amy Epps-Martin, Associate Professor at TAMU, and Denise Hoyt, M.S. candidate and Research Assistant at TAMU. Additional contributors to this work include Charles Leudders, FHWA Federal Lands Division, Ben Vagher, A-1 Chip Seal, William Tru- dahl, Washington state DOT, and Roy Guevera, Colorado Department of Transportation. The authors grate- fully acknowledge the work and technical assistance of Nikornpon Prapaitrakul, Rongbin Han, Xin Jin, and Charles J. Glover of the Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A&M University, and of Rick Canatella of the Texas Transportation Institute McNew Laboratory, Texas A&M University.

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FOREWORD By Amir N. Hanna Staff Officer Transportation Research Board This report presents a manual for the use of emulsion-based chip seals for pavement preservation. The manual addresses the factors affecting chip performance, discusses design and construction considerations, and identifies procedures for selecting the appropriate chip seal materials. The report also contains recommended test methods for use in the design and quality control of chip seals. The test methods are presented in AASHTO format to facilitate incorporation into the AASHTO Standard Specifications for Transportation Materials and Methods of Sampling and Testing. The material contained in the report should be of immediate interest to state maintenance engineers and others involved in the mainte- nance and preservation of flexible pavements. Emulsion-based chip seals are the most commonly used chip seal type in the United States. These seals are frequently used as pavement preservation treatments on flexible pave- ments to seal fine cracks in the underlying pavement's surface and prevent water intrusion into the base and subgrade. Because chip seals are not expected to provide additional struc- tural capacity to the pavement, benefits ideally are accrued by their application early in a pavement's life before a great degree of distress is exhibited. Although a large body of research is available on chip-seal design practices, the design process in the United States remains empirical in nature--based on experience and judgment. Procedures that consider the surface condition of the existing pavement, traffic volume, environment, and other rel- evant factors in determining the characteristics and application rates of aggregates and binder have not been widely used in the United States. In spite of their apparent benefits, the use of chip seals for pavement preservation in the United States is hampered by the lack of nationally accepted guidance on their design and construction and appropriate specifications and testing procedures for constituent materi- als. Thus, research was needed to identify the factors that influence chip-seal design and per- formance and to develop a manual that documents design and construction practices and delineates necessary testing and specifications. Such a manual will provide highway agen- cies with the information necessary for designing and constructing long-lasting chip seals and preserving pavements. Under NCHRP Project 14-17, "Manual for Emulsion-Based Chip Seals for Pavement Preservation," Colorado State University of Fort Collins conducted a review of available information relevant to design and construction practices of emulsion-based chip seals, conducted laboratory tests and field investigations to evaluate the factors affecting chip seal performance, and prepared a manual for designing and constructing chip seals over hot- mix asphalt pavements together with test methods for evaluating some aspects of chip seal construction. In addition to the manual and test methods, the report includes a summary

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of the research performed, related findings and recommendations, and appendices that pro- vide further elaboration on the research. The manual and test methods presented in this report will be particularly useful to high- way agencies because the manual provides a rational approach for the design of chip seals used in the preservation of pavements and the test methods provide appropriate means for control of chip seal construction. The adoption of this manual and test methods by AASHTO is, therefore, suggested. The appendices contained in the research agency's final report provide further elabora- tion on the work performed in this project. These appendices are not published herein but are available on the NCHRP Report 680 summary webpage at http://www.trb.org/Main/ Blurbs/164090.aspx.

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CONTENTS 1 Manual for Emulsion-Based Chip Seals for Pavement Preservation 2 Chapter 1 Introduction 2 1.1 Definition of Chip Seals 3 Chapter 2 Factors Affecting Chip-Seal Performance 3 2.1 Pavement Behavior and Condition 4 2.2 Traffic Characteristics 4 2.3 Geometry 4 2.4 Highway, Residential, Urban, or Rural 5 2.5 Materials 6 2.6 Construction Preparation 6 2.7 Maintenance 7 Chapter 3 Design and Construction Considerations 7 3.1 Identifying Appropriate Pavements to Chip Seal 7 3.2 Type of Seal 7 3.3 Chip Seal Selection 7 3.4 Selecting the Aggregate Size 8 3.5 Evaluating the Pavement 8 3.6 Materials 13 Chapter 4 Selecting the Appropriate Chip Seal 13 4.1 Single Seal 13 4.2 Single Seal with Choke Stone 13 4.3 Double Seal 14 Chapter 5 Chip Seal Materials Selection 14 5.1 Chip Gradation 14 5.2 Modified or Unmodified Emulsion 14 5.3 Fog Seal After Chip Seal 14 5.4 EmulsionAggregate Compatibility 15 Chapter 6 Chip-Seal Design 15 6.1 Emulsion Application Rate 20 6.2 Aggregate Application Rate 20 6.3 Time Until Sweeping and Traffic 20 6.4 Other Considerations 20 6.5 Example Design 22 Chapter 7 Construction 22 7.1 Equipment Calibrations 23 7.2 Operations

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26 Chapter 8 Quality Control 26 8.1 Aggregate Sieve Analysis 26 8.2 Moisture Content of System 26 8.3 Embedment Depth Measurement During Construction 26 8.4 Field Viscosity 27 Chapter 9 Performance 27 9.1 Less Than One Year 27 9.2 Greater Than One Year 28 References 29 Appendix Recommended Test Methods 66 Attachment Manual for Emulsion-Based Chip Seals for Pavement Preservation: Research Report Note: Many of the photographs, figures, and tables in this report have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the Web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.