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TCRP TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM SYNTHESIS 86 Relationships Between Streetcars and the Built Environment Sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration A Synthesis of Transit Practice

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TCRP OVERSIGHT ACRPAND TRANSPORTATION PROJECT COMMITTEE* OVERSIGHT RESEARCH BOARD 2010 TRANSPORTATION EXECUTIVE RESEARCH COMMITTEE* BOARD 2009 EXECUTIVE COMMITTE SELECTION COMMITTEE* CHAIR CHAIR OFFICERS OFFICERS ANN AUGUST James Wilding Santee Wateree Regional Transportation Chair: Michael R. Morris, CHAIR: Adib K.Director of Transportation, Kanafani, North Cahill Professor of CivilCentral TexasUniversity Engineering, Council ofof California, Berkeley Independent Consultant Governments, Arlington VICE CHAIR: Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Authority Vice Chair: NeilGovernments, J. Pedersen, Administrator, Arlington Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore MEMBERS VICE CHAIR Executive Director: Robert E.:Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board JOHN BARTOSIEWICZ EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board Jeff Hamiel McDonald Transit Associates Paul MinneapolisSt. MEMBERS MICHAEL BLAYLOCK MEMBERS Metropolitan Airports CommissionJ. BARRY BARKER, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY Jacksonville Transportation Authority J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY LINDA J. BOHLINGER ALLEN D. BIEHLER, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg HNTB Corp. MEMBERS LARRY L. BROWN, Allen D. Biehler, SR., Secretary, Executive Pennsylvania Director, DOT, Mississippi Harrisburg DOT, Jackson RAUL BRAVO James Crites DEBORAH H. Larry L. Brown, BUTLER, Sr., Executive Executive Director, Vice President, Mississippi Planning, DOT, and CIO,Jackson Norfolk Southern Raul V. BravoDallasFort & AssociatesWorth International AirportCorporation, Deborah Norfolk,H. VA Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, GREGORY COOK Richard de Neufville WILLIAM A.V. Norfolk,CLARK, VAProfessor, Department of Geography, University of California, Veolia Transportation Massachusetts Institute of Technology Los AngelesWilliam A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles TERRY GARCIA Kevin CREWS C. Dolliole StarTran EUGENE A. CONTI, David S. JR., Ekern,Secretary of Transportation, Commissioner, North Virginia DOT, Carolina DOT, Raleigh Richmond Unison Consulting ANGELA IANNUZZIELLO John K. Duval NICHOLAS J.Nicholas GARBER, Henry L. J. Garber, Kinnier Henry Professor, L. Kinnier Department Professor, of Civil Department Engineering, of Civil and University of Engineering, ENTRA Consultants Beverly Municipal Airport Director, Center for Transportation Virginia, CharlottesvilleStudies, University of Virginia, Charlottesville JOHN INGLISH Kitty Freidheim JEFFREY W. Jeffrey HAMIEL, Executive W. Hamiel, Director, Executive Metropolitan Director, Airports Metropolitan Commission, Airports Minneapolis, Commission, MN MN Minneapolis, Utah Transit Authority Freidheim Consulting PAULA J. HAMMOND, Secretary, Washington State DOT, Olympia SHERRY LITTLE Edward A. (Ned) Helme, President, Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC Steve Grossman EDWARD A. (NED) HELME, President, Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC Spartan Solutions , LLC Aviation Authority Randell H. Iwasaki, Director, California DOT, Sacramento Jacksonville ADIB K. KANAFANI, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley JONATHAN H. M CDONALD Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson Tom Jensen HNTB Corporation SUSAN MARTINOVICH, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City City National Safe Skies Alliance DEBRA L. Debra L. MILLER, Miller, Secretary, Secretary, Kansas Kansas DOT, DOT, Topeka Topeka GARY W. MC NEIL Catherine M. Lang GO Transit Federal Aviation Administration Neil J. Pedersen, SANDRA ROSENBLOOM, Administrator, Professor Maryland of Planning, State Highway University Administration, of Arizona, Tucson Baltimore MICHAEL P. GinaMELANIPHY TRACY L. Pete K. Rahn, ROSSER, Vice Director, Missouri President, Corporate DOT, Jefferson Traffic, City Stores, Inc., Mandeville, LA Wal-Mart Marie Lindsey Motor Coach Industries Los Angeles World Airports STEVEN T. SCALZO, Chief Operating Sandra Rosenbloom, Officer, Professor Marine Resources of Planning, UniversityGroup, Seattle, of Arizona, WA Tucson BRADFORD Carolyn MILLER Motz HENRY G. (GERRY) Tracy L. SCHWARTZ, JR., Chairman Rosser, Vice President, Regional(retired), General Jacobs/Sverdrup Manager, Wal-Mart Civil, Inc.,Inc., Mandeville, LA Stores, Des Moines Area Regional Hagerstown Transit Airport Regional Authority St. Louis, MO Rosa Clausell Rountree, CEOGeneral Manager, Transroute International Canada Services, Inc., FRANK OTERO Richard Tucker BEVERLY A. SCOTT, General Manager and Chief Executive Officer, Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid PACO Technologies Pitt Meadows, BC KEITH PARKER Huntsville International Airport Transit Authority, StevenAtlanta, T. Scalzo,GA Chief Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, WA VIA Metropolitan Transit DAVID SELTZER, HenryPrincipal, G. (Gerry) Mercator Schwartz, Advisors LLC, Philadelphia, Jr., Chairman PA (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO PETER ROGOFF EX OFFICIO MEMBERS DANIEL SPERLING, Professor of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science and Policy; C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Aust FTA Sabrina Johnson Director, Institute of Transportation Studies; and Interim Director, Energy Efficiency Center, Linda S. Watson, CEO, LYNXCentral Florida Regional Transportation Authority, Orlando U.S. Environmental Protection Agency University of California, Davis JEFFREY ROSENBERG Amalgamated Richard Transit Union KIRK T. STEUDLE, Steve Williams, Director,Chairman Michigan and DOT,CEO, Maverick Transportation, Inc., Little Rock, AR Lansing Marchi RICHARD SARLESAirports Council International--NorthDOUGLAS America W. STOTLAR, President and CEO, Con-Way, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI Washington Metropolitan Laura McKee Area Transit Authority C. MICHAEL EX OFFICIO WALTON, MEMBERS Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of MICHAEL SCANLON Air Transport Association of America Texas, Austin San Mateo County Transit District Thad Allen (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, DC Henry Ogrodzinski MARILYN SHAZORNational Association of State Aviation Officials Peter H. Appel, Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT Southwest Ohio Regional Transit Authority EX OFFICIO MEMBERS J. Randolph Babbitt, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT Melissa Sabatine JAMES STEM PETER H. APPEL, American Association of Airport Executives RebeccaAdministrator, M. Brewster, Research President and and Innovative Technology COO, American Administration, Transportation Research U.S.DOT Institute, Smyrna, United Transportation Union J. RANDOLPH BABBITT, Administrator, GARY THOMAS Robert E. Skinner, Jr. George Bugliarello, PresidentFederal Emeritus Aviation Administration, and University Professor,U.S.DOT Polytechnic Institute of New Yor Transportation Research Board Dallas Area Rapid Transit REBECCA M. BREWSTER, President University, Brooklyn; and COO, Foreign American Secretary, Transportation National Research Institute, Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC FRANK TOBEY Smyrna, GAJames E. Caponiti, Acting Deputy Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT First Transit SECRETARY GEORGE BUGLIARELLO, Cynthia Douglass, President Emeritus Acting Deputy and University Administrator, Professor, Pipeline Polytechnic and Hazardous Institute Materials Safety MATTHEW O. TUCKER W. Jenks Christopher of New York University, Brooklyn; Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Administration, U.S.DOT North County Transportation Transit DistrictResearch Board Washington, DC PAM WARD ANNE S. FERRO, LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division Administrator, Federal of Transportation, Motor Bureau Carrier Safety of Indian Affairs, Administration, U.S. Department of the U.S.DOT Ottumwa Transit Authority LEROY GISHI, Chief, Interior, Washington, Division DC of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of ALICE WIGGINS-TOLBERT the Interior,Edward R. Hamberger, Washington, DC President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC Parsons Brinckerhoff John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation EDWARD R. HAMBERGER, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC EX OFFICIO MEMBERS JOHN C. HORSLEY, Executive Officials, Director, Washington, DC American Association of State Highway and WILLIAM W. MILLAR Transportation Rose Officials, Washington, A. McMurry, DC Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S.D Acting Deputy APTA DAVID T. MATSUDA, Deputy Acting Ronald Medford, Administrator, Maritime Administration, Deputy Administrator, U.S.DOT National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, ROBERT E. SKINNER, JR. VICTOR M. MENDEZ, U.S.DOT Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT TRB WILLIAM W.Victor MILLAR, President, American Public Transportation Association,U.S.DOT Washington, DC JOHN C. HORSLEY M. Mendez, Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, ROBERT J. PAPP (Adm., William U.S. Coast W. Millar, Guard), President, Commandant, American U.S. Coast Guard, Public Transportation U.S. Department Association, Washington, DC AASHTO VICTOR MENDEZ of Homeland Security, Washington, DC Peter M. Rogoff, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT FHWA CYNTHIA L. QUARTERMAN, Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Joseph Administration, C. Szabo, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT U.S.DOT TDC EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR Polly Trottenberg, PETER M. ROGOFF, Assistant Administrator, Secretary Federal forAdministration, Transit Transportation Policy, U.S.DOT U.S.DOT LOUIS SANDERS Robert L. VanAdministrator, DAVID L. STRICKLAND, Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S.Highway National Army), Chief of Engineers Traffic and Commanding General, Safety Administration, APTA U.S.DOT U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC SECRETARY JOSEPH C. SZABO, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT CHRISTOPHER W. JENKS POLLY TROTTENBERG, Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy, U.S.DOT TRB ROBERT L. VAN ANTWERP (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC *Membership *Membership as of June 2010. as of October 2009. *Membership as of July 2010. as of October 2009. *Membership

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TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM TCRP Synthesis 86 Relationships Between Streetcars and the Built Environment A Synthesis of Transit Practice Consultants RON GOLEM and JANET SMITH-HEIMER BAE Urban Economics, Inc. Emeryville, California S ubscriber C ategories Economics Environment Planning and Forecasting Public Transportation Research Sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration in Cooperation with the Transit Development Corporation TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2010 www.TRB.org

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TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM TCRP SYNTHESIS 86 The nation's growth and the need to meet mobility, environmental, Project J-7, Topic SH-12 and energy objectives place demands on public transit systems. ISSN 1073-4880 Current systems, some of which are old and in need of upgrading, ISBN 978-0-309-14309-7 must expand service area, increase service frequency, and improve Library of Congress Control Number 2010923254 efficiency to serve these demands. Research is necessary to solve operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the transit indus- 2010 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. try. The Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the transit industry can COPYRIGHT INFORMATION develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for The need for TCRP was originally identified in TRB Special obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copy- Report 213--Research for Public Transit: New Directions, pub- right to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. lished in 1987 and based on a study sponsored by the Federal Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce mate- Transit Administration (FTA). A report by the American Public rial in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is Transportation Association (APTA), Transportation 2000, also given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, recognized the need for local, problem-solving research. TCRP, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those modeled after the longstanding and successful National Coopera- reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses tive Highway Research Program, undertakes research and other will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or repro- technical activities in response to the needs of transit service pro- duced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. viders. The scope of TCRP includes a variety of transit research fields including planning, service configuration, equipment, facilities, operations, human resources, maintenance, policy, and NOTICE administrative practices. TCRP was established under FTA sponsorship in July 1992. The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Transit Cooperative Proposed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, TCRP was Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the authorized as part of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Effi- approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and to ciency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). On May 13, 1992, a memorandum review this report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard agreement outlining TCRP operating procedures was executed by for appropriate balance. The report was reviewed by the technical panel and the three cooperating organizations: FTA, the National Academy accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by of Sciences, acting through the Transportation Research Board the Transportation Research Board and approved by the Governing Board of the (TRB); and the Transit Development Corporation, Inc. (TDC), National Research Council. a nonprofit educational and research organization established by The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those APTA. TDC is responsible for forming the independent governing of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those board, designated as the TCRP Oversight and Project Selection of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the (TOPS) Committee. program sponsors. Research problem statements for TCRP are solicited periodi- The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National cally but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the Research Council, and the sponsors of the Transit Cooperative Research Program responsibility of the TOPS Committee to formulate the research do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear program by identifying the highest priority projects. As part of herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. the evaluation, the TOPS Committee defines funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed by TRB. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooperative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, TCRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Published reports of the Because research cannot have the desired impact if products fail to reach the intended audience, special emphasis is placed TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM on disseminating TCRP results to the intended end users of the research: transit agencies, service providers, and suppliers. TRB are available from: provides a series of research reports, syntheses of transit practice, Transportation Research Board and other supporting material developed by TCRP research. APTA Business Office will arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, and other 500 Fifth Street, NW activities to ensure that results are implemented by urban and rural Washington, DC 20001 transit industry practitioners. The TCRP provides a forum where transit agencies can coopera- and can be ordered through the Internet at: tively address common operational problems. The TCRP results http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore support and complement other ongoing transit research and train- ing programs. Printed in the United States of America

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the ser- vices of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Acad- emy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and prog- ress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board's varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

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TCRP COMMITTEE FOR PROJECT J-7 COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS STAFF CHRISTOPHER W. JENKS, Director, Cooperative Research Programs CHAIR CRAWFORD F. JENCKS, Deputy Director, Cooperative DWIGHT A. FERRELL Research Programs Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority GWEN CHISHOLM SMITH, Senior Program Officer EILEEN DELANEY, Director of Publications MEMBERS DEBRA W. ALEXANDER TCRP SYNTHESIS STAFF Capital Area Transportation Authority, Lansing, MI STEPHEN R. GODWIN, Director for Studies and Special DONNA DeMARTINO Programs San Joaquin Regional Transit District, Stockton, CA JON M. WILLIAMS, Program Director, IDEA and MARK W. FUHRMANN Synthesis Studies Metro Transit-- MinneapolisSt. Paul, MN DONNA L. VLASAK, Senior Program Officer ROBERT H. IRWIN DON TIPPMAN, Editor Consultant, Calgary, AB, Canada DEMISHA WILLIAMS, Senior Program Assistant DEBBIE IRVIN, Program Associate PAUL J. LARROUSSE National Transit Institute, New Brunswick, NJ DAVID A. LEE TOPIC PANEL Connecticut Transit, Hartford, CT DAMON BLYTHE, Utah Transit Authority EMEKA MONEME NAT BOTTIGHEIMER, Washington Metropolitan Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority Area Transit Authority HAYWARD M. SEYMORE, III SUSAN HANDY, University of CaliforniaDavis Q Straint, Shelton, WA SUSAN HERRE, Federal Railroad Administration (Liaison) J. RICHARD KUZMYAK, Silver Spring, MD PAM WARD David Ory, Metropolitan Transportation Commission, Ottumwa Transit Authority, Ottumwa, IAF Oakland, CA (Liaison) SHARON PUGH, Federal Transit Administration (Liaison) PETER SHAW, Transportation Research Board PETER STRAUS, San Francisco Municipal Transportation FTA LIAISON Agency MICHAEL BALTES PATRICK SWEENEY, City of Portland (OR) Office of Federal Transit Administration Transportation LISA COLBERT JOHN D. WILKINS, Gillette, NJ Federal Transit Administration BETTY WINELAND, Central Arkansas Transit Authority TRB LIAISON PETER SHAW Transportation Research Board

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FOREWORD Transit administrators, engineers, and researchers often face problems for which information already exists, either in documented form or as undocumented experience and practice. This information may be fragmented, scattered, and unevaluated. As a consequence, full knowl- edge of what has been learned about a problem may not be brought to bear on its solution. Costly research findings may go unused, valuable experience may be overlooked, and due con- sideration may not be given to recommended practices for solving or alleviating the problem. There is information on nearly every subject of concern to the transit industry. Much of it derives from research or from the work of practitioners faced with problems in their day-to-day work. To provide a systematic means for assembling and evaluating such useful information and to make it available to the entire transit community, the Transit Cooperative Research Program Oversight and Project Selection (TOPS) Committee authorized the Transportation Research Board to undertake a continuing study. This study, TCRP Project J-7, "Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems," searches out and synthesizes useful knowledge from all available sources and prepares concise, documented reports on specific topics. Reports from this endeavor constitute a TCRP report series, Synthesis of Transit Practice. This synthesis series reports on current knowledge and practice, in a compact format, with- out the detailed directions usually found in handbooks or design manuals. Each report in the series provides a compendium of the best knowledge available on those measures found to be the most successful in resolving specific problems. PREFACE This synthesis documents experience with selected streetcar and trolley projects and their By Donna L. Vlasak relationship with the built environment. There appears to have been a resurgence of such systems in the United States. Their ability to spur growth and revitalization has not been Senior Program Officer adequately documented, whereas local potential for changes in land use are often used as Transportation justification for investment in them. Policymakers and planners seek a better understanding Research Board of how this mode of transportation interacts with the built environment. The report examines selected, built streetcar and trolley systems to trace their evolution, define significant factors, and identify commonalities among levels of success in impacting the built environment. This report presents an initial overview of published literature; a summary of an in- depth telephone survey of 13 of the 14 currently operating U.S. streetcar systems, a 93% response rate; and case studies of five systems with more details on the state of current knowledge and specific relationships of streetcars to their own built environments. Ron Golem and Janet Smith-Heimer, BAE, Urban Economics, Inc., Emeryville, Cali- fornia, collected and synthesized the information and wrote the paper, under the guidance of a panel of experts in the subject area. The members of the Topic Panel are acknowledged on the preceding page. This synthesis is an immediately useful document that records the practices that were acceptable within the limitations of the knowledge available at the time of its preparation. As progress in research and practice continues, new knowledge will be added to that now at hand.

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Contents 1 SUMMARY 3 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Background, 3 Purpose of Synthesis, 3 6 CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW Value Premium Impacts, 6 Amount and Density of New Development, 7 Economic Development Impacts, 7 Summary of Literature Limitations, 7 9 CHAPTER THREE SURVEY OF STREETCAR AND TROLLEY SYSTEMS Survey Methodology, 9 Profile of Streetcar Systems, 10 Planning, Financing, and Managing the System, 10 Impacts on Physical Built Environment, 10 Impacts on Economic Development, 11 Changes in Future Land Use Plans and Regulations, 11 12 CHAPTER FOUR CASE STUDIES Kenosha, Wisconsin, 12 Savannah, Georgia, 14 Portland, Oregon, 16 Memphis, Tennessee, 20 Seattle, Washington, 24 27 CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSIONS 28 REFERENCES 29 APPENDIX A SURVEY INSTRUMENT 32 APPENDIX B LIST OF RESPONDENTS 33 APPENDIX C SURVEY RESPONSES

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