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27 CHAPTER five Conclusions This synthesis summarizes the literature and documentation Suggested analytical needs include the following: regarding the impacts of modern streetcar systems on the built environment, underscoring the need for further empiri- · Systematic documentation of "before" and "after" cal analysis. streetcar impacts on the amount, type, density, and values of development within specified distances from Streetcars represent a growing transportation alternative, streetcar routes. with more than 45 systems built or in various stages of plan- · Use of statistical analyses, similar to existing research ning or construction. Although the diversity is great among on light rail systems, to assess the relationships operating and planned systems, based on the work done between streetcars and other factors on outcome such for this synthesis, it is possible to identify several stages of as increased share of citywide development. streetcar system development. These stages are potentially · Thorough rider surveys (and related market research but not necessarily sequential and include the following: such as focus groups as appropriate) to better under- stand ridership origin, destination, frequency of use, · Demonstration: a volunteer or local agency establishes purpose of trip, and rider demographics on streetcars. the feasibility of a modest streetcar line · Benchmarking and monitoring of factors such as rider- · Targeted trips: expanded service is focused on certain ship compared with reduced demand for public park- groups, typically tourists and residents but not neces- ing garage spaces, increased retail sales, and increased sarily commuters public tax revenues. · Full service: frequent daily service, including during · Studies to assess the potential for full economic devel- commute hours with service to downtown or business opment impacts relating to jobs and employer attrac- centers tion along streetcar routes, including interviews with · Urban connector: multiple routes between various dis- businesses to identify site location decisions regarding tricts and full integration into the regional transporta- streetcar access, relationships to certain occupations tion system or industry sectors, and perceptions of employers and employees regarding how streetcars enhance other These stages have distinctly different implications for urban amenities. the potential impact of streetcars on the built environment, · Systematic assessment of streetcars as a feature in car- and the types and amount of economic development and bon reduction strategies, including reductions in vehi- changes in the built environment that might occur. Because cle miles traveled by automobile, reduced congestion, federal transportation policies, along with most local gov- and so on. ernments' land use and transportation planning increasingly · Best practices documentation of methods to integrate are emphasizing "green" development, smart growth, reduc- streetcars into regional transit networks, including tion in carbon emissions, and increased links between land streetcar relationships to "complete streets," changes use and transportation, the need to systematize the study of in pedestrian mobility, bicycle lanes, and auto conges- streetcar impacts is dramatic. tion management.