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ACRP AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM REPORT 35 Sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Planning for Offsite Airport Terminals

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ACRP OVERSIGHT COMMITTEE* TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2010 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* CHAIR OFFICERS James Wilding CHAIR: Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority (re- Governments, Arlington tired) VICE CHAIR: Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore VICE CHAIR EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board Jeff Hamiel MEMBERS MinneapolisSt. Paul Metropolitan Airports Commission J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY Allen D. Biehler, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg MEMBERS Larry L. Brown, Sr., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson James Crites Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, DallasFort Worth International Airport Norfolk, VA Richard de Neufville William A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles Massachusetts Institute of Technology Kevin C. Dolliole Eugene A. Conti, Jr., Secretary of Transportation, North Carolina DOT, Raleigh Unison Consulting Nicholas J. Garber, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, and Director, John K. Duval Center for Transportation Studies, University of Virginia, Charlottesville Austin Commercial, LP Jeffrey W. Hamiel, Executive Director, Metropolitan Airports Commission, Minneapolis, MN Kitty Freidheim Paula J. Hammond, Secretary, Washington State DOT, Olympia Freidheim Consulting Steve Grossman Edward A. (Ned) Helme, President, Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC Jacksonville Aviation Authority Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Tom Jensen Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City National Safe Skies Alliance Debra L. Miller, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka Catherine M. Lang Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Federal Aviation Administration Gina Marie Lindsey Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Corporate Traffic, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Mandeville, LA Los Angeles World Airports Steven T. Scalzo, Chief Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, WA Carolyn Motz Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO Hagerstown Regional Airport Beverly A. Scott, General Manager and Chief Executive Officer, Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Richard Tucker Authority, Atlanta, GA Huntsville International Airport David Seltzer, Principal, Mercator Advisors LLC, Philadelphia, PA EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Daniel Sperling, Professor of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science and Policy; Director, Institute of Transportation Studies; and Interim Director, Energy Efficiency Center, University of California, Davis Sabrina Johnson Kirk T. Steudle, Director, Michigan DOT, Lansing U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Richard Marchi Douglas W. Stotlar, President and CEO, Con-Way, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI Airports Council International--North America C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin Laura McKee Air Transport Association of America EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Henry Ogrodzinski National Association of State Aviation Officials Peter H. Appel, Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT Melissa Sabatine J. Randolph Babbitt, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT American Association of Airport Executives Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA Robert E. Skinner, Jr. George Bugliarello, President Emeritus and University Professor, Polytechnic Institute of New York Transportation Research Board University, Brooklyn; Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC SECRETARY Anne S. Ferro, Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S.DOT LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Christopher W. Jenks Interior, Washington, DC Transportation Research Board Edward R. Hamberger, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC David T. Matsuda, Deputy Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT Victor M. Mendez, Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC Robert J. Papp (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC Cynthia L. Quarterman, Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Peter M. Rogoff, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT David L. Strickland, Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Joseph C. Szabo, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT Polly Trottenberg, Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy, U.S.DOT Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC *Membership as of June 2010. *Membership as of July 2010.

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AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ACRP REPORT 35 Planning for Offsite Airport Terminals MarketSense Consulting LLC Boston, MA IN ASSOCIATION WITH DMR Consulting Pasadena, CA Jacobs Consultancy Burlingame, CA Matthew A. Coogan White River Junction, VT AND Resource Systems Group, Inc White River Junction, VT Subscriber Categories Aviation Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2010 www.TRB.org

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AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ACRP REPORT 35 Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- Project 10-02 portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and inter- ISSN 1935-9802 national commerce. They are where the nation's aviation system ISBN 978-0-309-15488-8 connects with other modes of transportation and where federal respon- Library of Congress Control Number 2010931671 sibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most 2010 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Coopera- COPYRIGHT INFORMATION tive Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously to meet demands placed on it. published or copyrighted material used herein. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The ACRP carries understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB or FAA endorsement out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the agencies and are not being adequately addressed by existing federal material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate research programs. It is modeled after the successful National Coopera- acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of tive Highway Research Program and Transit Cooperative Research Pro- the material, request permission from CRP. gram. The ACRP undertakes research and other technical activities in a variety of airport subject areas, including design, construction, mainte- nance, operations, safety, security, policy, planning, human resources, NOTICE and administration. The ACRP provides a forum where airport opera- tors can cooperatively address common operational problems. The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Airport Cooperative Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the The ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision Governing Board of the National Research Council. 100-Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary partici- pants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and to review this report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to Department of Transportation with representation from airport oper- procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved ating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the the American Association of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), and the Air Transport Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. Association (ATA) as vital links to the airport community; (2) the TRB The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and Council, and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because contract with the National Academies formally initiating the program. they are considered essential to the object of the report. The ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research orga- nizations. Each of these participants has different interests and respon- sibilities, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for the ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to the TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by iden- tifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed by the TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport pro- fessionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels pre- pare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and Published reports of the selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooper- AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP are available from: project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the Transportation Research Board Business Office intended end-users of the research: airport operating agencies, service 500 Fifth Street, NW providers, and suppliers. The ACRP produces a series of research Washington, DC 20001 reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties, and industry associations may arrange for work- and can be ordered through the Internet at shops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore results are implemented by airport-industry practitioners. Printed in the United States of America

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR ACRP REPORT 35 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Michael R. Salamone, ACRP Manager Joseph J. Brown-Snell, Program Associate Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Andra Briere, Editor ACRP PROJECT 10-02 PANEL Field of Operations Steven Tafuro, TranSystems Corporation, South Norwalk, CT (Chair) Michael J. Cheyne, Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport, College Park, GA Alexandre Gomes de Barros, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada Dennis Mewshaw, HNTB Corporation, Henderson, NV Jim Ritchie, Los Angeles World Airports, Los Angeles, CA Lawrence "Larry" Smith, Odessa, FL Paul J. Wiedefeld, Baltimore Washington International Airport, BWI Airport, MD Paul L. Friedman, FAA Liaison Christine Gerencher, TRB Liaison

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FOREWORD By Michael R. Salamone Staff Officer Transportation Research Board ACRP Report 35: Planning for Offsite Airport Terminals provides information for airports that wish to serve urban or suburban originating passengers with remote terminal facilities. Airport planners (including facility, operations, environmental, and development) will find the report helps to identify potential customers for an offsite terminal and how the concept fits into airport planning. The report can be used in three ways. First, those in the airport industry interested in the concept can use the information in the conclusions and recommendations to determine whether the concept merits their consideration, based on existing and anticipated opera- tional issues and long-term goals and objectives for the airport/region. Second, those in the industry interested in pursuing the development of offsite terminals can use the detailed information in the report to determine geographic market areas to be served by an offsite terminal and the potential number of customers. Third, those interested in developing an offsite terminal can use the planning guide as a roadmap for the process. It is important for an airport to establish goals and objectives prior to evaluating the fea- sibility of offsite terminals. A planning guide provides practical assistance to airport staff and other decisionmakers when planning and developing an offsite terminal and airport transportation link. It is intended to guide project elements and issues that are common to most offsite terminal projects, with the recognition that circumstances at an individual air- port may warrant deviations from the recommendations in the guide. Under ACRP Project 10-02, MarketSense Consulting LLC of Boston, MA, was asked to investigate and present the most current knowledge related to the operation of remote air- port terminals and to develop guidance, which was based upon airport experience to assist airports in the planning, design, and implementation of such an offsite facility. The research focused on a handful of domestic case studies, which provide a summary of current infor- mation and practice on the concept of off-airport passenger processing. Two international locations were also examined for the potential benefit of domestic airports. The case stud- ies look at airport characteristics, market research data, ridership trends, information on branding/marketing/advertising, motivation for developing the offsite terminal, amenities, and financial information.

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CONTENTS 1 Chapter 1 Introduction 1 Guide Purpose 1 Definitions and Assumptions 3 Chapter 2 Rationale for an Offsite Terminal 3 Development of Goals and Objectives 3 Motivation for an Offsite Terminal 4 Developing Goals and Objectives 7 Chapter 3 Market Determination 7 Data Requirements and Processing 11 Offsite Terminal Market Analysis 19 Checklist for Offsite Terminal Market Analysis 21 Chapter 4 Project Definition and Planning 21 Site Selection Process 23 Transportation Link 29 Customer Parking 34 Offsite Terminal 39 Chapter 5 Costs and Benefits 39 Financial Performance of an Offsite Terminal and Transportation Link 44 Other Benefits 47 On-Airport Financial Impacts 50 Chapter 6 Plan of Finance and Financial Feasibility 50 State and Local Coordination/Funds 51 Federal Funding Sources 55 Local Funding Sources 58 Federal and State Credit Assistance 59 Mixed-Use Developments and Intermodal Centers 61 Summary of Funding Sources 63 Chapter 7 Branding, Advertising, and Customer Service 63 Branding 64 Public Information 64 Advertising--Communicating with Target Markets 66 Customer Service 66 Information Technology 67 Chapter 8 Implementation Guidelines 67 Negotiation of Terms of Agreement 68 Timeline Development 69 Transportation Link 70 Offsite Terminal Facility Preparation and Capital Improvements

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70 On-Airport Facility Preparation 70 Develop Pro Forma and Scenario Analysis 70 Advertising, Branding, and Public Information 71 Communication 71 Security Plan 71 Project Sponsor Approval Procedure 71 Accounting 72 Chapter 9 Performance Monitoring 72 Goals and Objectives 72 Finance 72 User Statistics 73 Operational Performance Measures 73 Mitigation 73 Surveys 74 Customer Feedback 75 References 76 Appendix Transit Air Benefits Calculator: Description and User's Manual Note: Many of the photographs, figures, and tables in this report have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the Web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.