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Project Definition and Planning 29 Another reason for the sponsoring organization to consider purchasing or leasing buses is it allows the sponsoring agency a greater ability to specify the type, model, and configuration of the vehicle. If more than one route is in operation and the routes are operated by different com- panies, there may be economies of scale in the system if the buses are provided by the sponsor- ing organization. In this case, fewer spare buses would be needed as backup for buses in regular service than if spare buses are provided by route. Vehicle Type The type of vehicle put in service will impact the cost of the transportation link and will also have environmental impacts. It may have an impact on curb management at the airport, depend- ing on the size of the vehicle. ADA requirements will also influence vehicle selection. The vehicle type may have an influence on ridership if the vehicle has the feel of public trans- portation rather than a service designed for airport users--that is, the perception of an uncom- fortable, noisy city bus versus a smooth, comfortable ride. Coaches or vehicles with the comfort of coaches are recommended, with features such as cushioned seats, armrests, and tray tables, particularly for trips of long duration. Capital, operating, and maintenance costs plus expected life cycle will impact the cost of pro- viding the transportation link. Capacity will also impact cost if a smaller vehicle will require more buses to be put into service to meet demand. The project sponsor should consider what type of vehicle is most likely to attract the targeted customer groups. If the sponsoring organization has environmental requirements or goals, they may influence selection of the vehicle type. If alternative-fuel vehicles are considered, the location of fueling facilities in the vicinity of the airport and the offsite terminal for regular fueling, as well as backup fueling facilities for emergency situations, should be identified in advance. Alternative-fuel vehi- cles available in the marketplace may dictate vehicle size or vehicle comfort. The size of the bus in relation to airport terminal curb capacity and bus layover and overnight space should also be considered. If the bus is operated by a third-party operator, overnight stor- age may be provided by the third party operator. Customer Parking An air passenger who typically would drive to the airport and use long-term parking will con- sider using an offsite terminal and transportation link if the appeal of using the offsite terminal is close to that of driving directly to the airport. This means that the experience of getting to the terminal as well as use of the terminal must be easy and safe. As this relates to parking, the park- ing supply should be Dedicated for airport users, Adequate to serve demand, and Secure for its users. If there are a significant number of airport employees using the offsite terminal, employee parking should not interfere with air passenger parking. Passenger parking should be located closer to the terminal. Elements of parking to be evaluated during project definition include Air passenger parking inventory: Long-term spaces (vehicles parked for duration of air travel) and Short-term spaces (serving passenger drop-off and pick-up);

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30 Planning for Offsite Airport Terminals Airport employee parking inventory; Surface lot versus parking structure; Hours of operation; Revenue collection/parking technology; and Security. Air Passenger Parking Inventory Long-term Parking The provision of a sufficient supply of long-term parking is crucial to attracting customers to the offsite terminal, particularly for offsite terminals located in suburban areas with little or no public transportation access. The provision of insufficient long-term parking to accommo- date ridership will almost certainly result in ridership not reaching its potential, while the pro- vision of parking in excess of demand does not guarantee additional revenue. A customer who travels to the offsite terminal and is turned away because there is no available parking must alter his or her plans and drive to the airport to make the flight. This inconvenient situation often results in a permanently lost customer who will most likely warn other people not to use the offsite terminal. In some instances, it may be unrealistic for the project sponsor to provide parking for every customer due to cost or scarcity of land. In these cases, the project sponsor can manage the park- ing supply through pricing or information dissemination or can provide supplemental parking nearby (e.g., holiday overflow parking, as is done at many airports). Providing customers with information about limited parking availability allows them to make the decision in advance either to access the offsite terminal through a drop-off mode or to use a different transportation mode to the airport. In this case, the offsite terminal may not attract all of its potential customers, but it also will not alienate them. For offsite terminals located in a densely populated area or in an area with high-quality, fre- quent, and reliable public transportation connections, long-term parking can be sized accord- ingly since passengers may access the offsite terminal by other modes in addition to private auto- mobile. If the offsite terminal is located in a facility that is shared with other uses such as an intermodal transportation center, a sufficient amount of parking is still crucial. The best way to guarantee a sufficient parking supply for airport users is to provide dedicated parking or a des- ignated area of a larger parking supply for offsite terminal customers. Guidelines for Sizing Long-Term Parking Typically it takes 3 or 4 years for the airport transportation link to realize its full ridership potential, referred to as "mature ridership," as cus- tomers in the market become aware of the new service and shift from their previous modes of access to and from the airport to the offsite terminal and transportation link. Parking should be sized to accommodate demand for at least 4 years of growth after mature ridership. The project sponsor should develop a plan for future expansion of parking spaces that will not disrupt the existing parking supply. Number of Spaces For a suburban terminal with few public transportation connections, most passengers will access the offsite terminal using a private automobile in which they are picked up or dropped off or they will use long-term parking. The long-term parking supply is used exclusively by resident air travelers since non-residents do not have a private automobile locally. Parking can be sized by analyzing the mode choices of resident passengers in the market area of the offsite terminal by travel purpose. In general, the ratio of resident passengers travel- ing directly to the airport using long-term parking to those using automobile pick-up/drop-off

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Project Definition and Planning 31 also applies to use of the offsite terminal, considering travel party size and trip purpose. For example, if the mix of resident pleasure travelers using private automobiles is 25% long-term park and 75% pick-up/drop-off, this ratio will be about the same for resident pleasure travelers using the offsite terminal. To size parking, travel party size and average trip length should be considered. Evaluating infor- mation on average length of stay in on-airport parking facilities (particularly for economy or remote lots) can help with this determination. Users of long-term parking at an offsite terminal typically have an average length of stay that is at least 1 day longer than the average length of stay for users of on-airport long-term parking since an offsite terminal is typically not attractive to travelers parking for 1 day (i.e., the business traveler). Comparison of occupancy data for off-peak, average, and peak travel times can also help with determining the amount of parking needed to accommodate demand during typical travel times versus busy times such as holidays and vacation periods. If the offsite terminal will be served by frequent and convenient intermodal connections that allow airport passengers to connect to the airport transportation link in a timely fashion, the amount of long-term parking needed can be factored down to account for resident travelers pro- jected to access to the terminal by other modes. For each viable connection, the project sponsor would estimate the number of resident air travelers in the market area who would use those con- nections to the offsite terminal instead of parking at the offsite terminal, then factor down the number of parking spaces needed considering party size and length of stay. To illustrate, Table 6 provides information on the parking supply for the offsite terminals serv- ing Boston Logan and Los Angeles International Airports. Since passenger characteristics vary by airport, this data may or may not be helpful in determining a parking estimate for an offsite terminal in a new market area. Analysis of specific data, using the guidelines in the previous sec- tion, is the most valid way to develop an estimate of the inventory needed. Table 6. Characteristics of parking supply at existing U.S. offsite terminals. Airport LAX BOS BOS BOS Braintree Logan Framingham Woburn Logan Offsite terminal Van Nuys FlyAway Express Logan Express Express Average daily 937 464 479 228 enplaning passengers1 Average daily 165 267 82 167 employees to airport1 Parking spaces 2,950 1,162 346 875 Dedicated employee No 800 290 No spaces Total spaces 2,950 1,962 636 875 Facility type Structure Surface Surface Surface Constrained No No Yes No Overflow parking No No Yes No Terminal size (sq. ft.) 15,000 5,000 2,250 7,500 1 Calendar Year 2006 Source: DMR Consulting based on data from LAWA and Massport.

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32 Planning for Offsite Airport Terminals Table 7. Land area needed for 1,000 parking spaces. Area per Space Land per 1,000 Spaces Land per 1,000 Spaces (sq. ft.) (sq. ft.) (acres) 280 280,000 6.43 300 300,000 6.89 320 320,000 7.35 330 330,000 7.58 350 350,000 8.03 360 360,000 8.26 Source: Jacobs Consultancy. Land Area Needed Table 7 shows the land area needed for 1,000 parking spaces based on different unit space sizes. For a surface lot, the land area includes circulation space, entry/exit plazas, and some landscap- ing. Since more circulation space is needed for a parking structure for ramps, stairs, and eleva- tors, higher unit space sizes in the table should be used for a parking structure. Typically the unit size per space is between 320 and 360 square feet. To develop initial estimates for the land area needed for the offsite terminal and parking, 350 square feet per space is a reasonable estimate, absent detailed plans. Short-term Parking Sufficient parking should be available near the offsite terminal for the loading and unloading of passengers being picked up and dropped off. It will be easier for both pick-up/drop-off pas- sengers and long-term parkers if the two types of parking are segregated. For passengers being dropped off, the amount of time the accompanying automobile will park will be equal to or less than the bus headway since the automobile will typically not remain at the offsite terminal once the air passenger has departed. Automobiles picking up passengers may wait a little longer since they may arrive further in advance of the bus. The number of short-term spaces required can be determined by calculating the ratio of resident pick-up/drop-off passen- gers to long-term parkers and travel party size, by considering parking needs for the next depart- ing bus and the next arriving bus, and by making assumptions about dwell times. Non-resident passengers may also be picked up and dropped off by private automobile, and this should be fac- tored into the short-term parking needs. In general, for a bus service with half-hourly headways and a capacity of 40 to 50 passengers per bus, a short-term parking area with 20 to 40 spaces should be sufficient to serve both average periods and peak periods. If the terminal offers ameni- ties that are used by the meeter/greeters or the general public, the short-term parking supply should be adjusted accordingly. Airport Employee Parking Inventory The amount of parking needed for airport employees will be related to the number of airport employees residing in the market area, the hours of operation of the transportation link in com- parison with employee work schedules, and where the bus picks up and drops off at the airport compared with where employees work. Other factors impacting the likelihood of employees to use the bus include cost and convenience. If a significant number of employees are projected to use the offsite terminal, employee parking should be segregated from air passenger parking, with spaces closest to the terminal reserved for air passenger parking.

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Project Definition and Planning 33 Surface Lot Versus Parking Structure The project sponsor will make the decision to provide surface or structured parking based on land availability, inventory, financial impacts, and customer-service considerations. Land Availability The size of available property that will be used for the offsite terminal compared with near- term, medium-term, and long-term parking projections may drive the decision to provide either surface or structured parking. Conversely, surface or structured parking preferences may be a criterion for selecting the site for the offsite terminal. Parking Inventory If the majority of the parking supply for air passengers will offer short walks to the terminal and the terminal is in sight of all parking spaces, a structure is probably not necessary. If more than 50% of the parking supply will require a walk of more than 600 feet, considering that some passengers will use the short-term parking area to drop off luggage in the terminal prior to park- ing in long-term parking, then shuttle buses around the surface lot or structure should be con- sidered. A convenient drop-off area or the provision of luggage carts in the lot may mitigate the need for a shuttle bus or a parking structure. Financial Impacts Estimated costs and revenues will play an important role in determining what kind of park- ing facility to develop. A surface lot that can be operated without a shuttle bus to transport pas- sengers between the lot and the offsite terminal will cost less to provide and operate than a park- ing structure. If a shuttle bus is being considered to shuttle customers between the surface lot and the offsite terminal, analysis will show whether the cost of a structure or a surface lot is more costly. Through analysis, the project sponsor can determine the daily parking rate that would be necessary for each parking facility type, given projected costs and revenues of other portions of the project and the overall financial goals of the project. Further analysis will show whether the market can bear the parking rates. Chapter 5 includes guidelines for estimating the capital costs of parking facilities. Customer-Service Considerations Walk times for customers between parking spaces and the offsite terminal are important to consider, as well as actual and perceived security of the parking facility types. Weather condi- tions in the airport market area may also play a role in the decision to provide structured park- ing if it will make a significant difference to the well-being of passengers or automobiles. There may be additional customer service considerations in a particular airport environment that will influence the parking facility type chosen. Hours of Operation At a minimum, the hours of operation of the parking facility should accommodate the sched- ule of the transportation link. In addition, there should be a way for customers to retrieve their automobiles outside of bus operating hours when, for example, a flight arrival is delayed and the last bus is missed. Revenue Collection/Parking Technology The best method and technology for parking revenue collection should be determined in advance by considering the facility, costs for equipment, operation and maintenance, and what kind of data will be needed for performance measurement.