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44 Planning for Offsite Airport Terminals Terminal--costs to design, construct, equip, furnish, and finish the terminal. Purchase price of property, if purchased, can be included here or apportioned between terminal and parking. Site preparation--costs to prepare the site including environmental impact studies, mitigation, and access from public streets to the facility. Project development--any other costs related to project development such as studies to proj- ect ridership and site selection analysis. If more than one property or geographic location is being considered, the project sponsor will determine how much of the cost should be allocated to the selected project. Operating Costs Included in the operating costs are the following: Bus--all costs related to the bus operation, which may include bus leasing costs; personnel; fuel; maintenance; fare collection (operating); or contract costs if operated and/or maintained by a third-party operator. Parking--costs to operate parking, which may include personnel, electricity, facility and equipment maintenance, cleaning, security, or contract costs if operated by a third party. Terminal--terminal operation costs, which may include personnel (e.g., terminal manager, bus ticket sales, and custodial staff); electricity and other utilities; maintenance; cleaning; secu- rity; or contract costs if operated by a third party. Leasing costs, if the property is leased, can be included here or apportioned between the terminal and parking. Advertising--costs to advertise the offsite terminal and transportation link. Administrative overhead--staff of the project sponsor who are not directly involved in the operation and upkeep of the offsite terminal and transportation link may charge time spent on the project to a cost center, or a percentage of operating costs may be applied as an esti- mate of staff time spent working on the project to account for time spent on duties such as per- formance measurement, reporting, accounting, surveying, and studies. The project sponsor may decide to exclude administrative costs from the pro forma. Other Benefits Other benefits of the offsite terminal and airport transportation link include reduced vehicle trips, savings in vehicle-miles traveled, and emissions savings. Trip Reduction and Savings in Vehicle-Miles Traveled Trip Reduction Every customer of the offsite terminal and transportation link who would have used a lower- occupancy vehicle to travel to and from the airport represents a reduction in vehicle trips traveled on the regional roadways between the offsite terminal and the airport, local roadways used in the vicinity of the airport, on-airport roadways, and potentially on the terminal curbs. The number of vehicle trips generated by an air passenger is related to the travel party size and the mode used. Table 11 shows vehicle trips generated per enplaning passenger (VTPP) for sample passenger trips to an airport. The best source of information for estimating vehicle trip savings for all passengers using the offsite terminal is an O/D air passenger survey, if available, that collects information on mode choice to the airport, travel party size, and resident status for a typical travel period. A typical travel period is a period that represents a typical passenger mix and volume of business and plea- sure travel for the individual airport. The data can be used to develop a spreadsheet that calcu- lates an average VTPP factor. This factor is then multiplied by the number of air passengers using

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Costs and Benefits 45 Table 11. VTPP by mode. Mode B: Number of A: Number of Vehicle Trips Empty Vehicle (Examples of Vehicle Trips C: Party Size per Passenger Trips Departing Single-Party Vehicles) to Airport = (A + B)/C Airporta Private automobile: 1 0 2 .5 long-term parking Private automobile: 1 0 1 1 long-term parking Private automobile: drop-off 1 1 2 1 Private automobile: drop-off 1 1 1 2 Taxi 1 .4b 2 .7 a Vehicles that are not parked at the airport for the duration of the air traveler's trip depart the airport. All drop-off trips by private automobile will depart the airport without air passengers. A percentage of taxi trips and private limousine trips will leave the airport empty. b In this case, 40% of taxi trips depart the airport without a passenger. Source: DMR Consulting the airport transportation link to estimate vehicle trips saved to the airport. Table 12 provides a template to arrive at the VTPP factor. The VTPP factor is as follows: Air passenger vehicle trips saved average VTPP projected (or actual) air passengers using transp portation link Typically this calculation will be used to estimate annual trips saved or average daily vehicle trips saved. If the customer base for the offsite terminal and transportation link is projected to be pre- dominantly residents, then the above template should be developed based on mode share and travel party size of resident air travelers. For HOV trips to the airport, including shared-ride vans and buses, a vehicle trip per passenger number can be calculated, but its use in a vehicle trip savings calculation would be suspect since scheduled HOV trips will still occur and many shared-ride vehicle trips will still occur with the other passengers that would have been in the vehicle. A similar factor can be developed for airport employees and applied to the number of employ- ees projected to use the transportation link. However, unless the airport has an active employee transportation program encouraging the use of ridesharing and alternative modes to get to work, most employees will drive alone. Therefore, it's reasonable to assume that one vehicle trip is saved for every employee using the offsite terminal and transportation link. Net vehicle trips saved includes vehicle trips saved by airport employees and air passengers and adjusts the savings by the number of trips made by the airport transportation link, if the vehicle is a bus or a van. If the transportation link is a rail link, the number of trips equals zero: Net vehicle trips saved air passenger vehicle trips saved employee vehicle trips saved trips made by airport transportation link The estimated number of net vehicle trips saved can be used as part of project evaluation dur- ing project planning, and actual vehicle trips saved can be used to measure progress once a ser- vice is operational. Metrics can also be developed for financial performance such as cost (or deficit) per vehicle trip saved.

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46 Planning for Offsite Airport Terminals Table 12. Template to develop average VTPP factor. Mode A: Share of B: Number of C: One- D: Empty E: F: Total VTPP O/D Passengers O/D Passengers1 way Trip2 Average Vehicle = A x (average vehicle Party Size Trips = daily O/D trip B/E x passengers) (C+D) Private automobile: 1 1 =F/B pick-up/drop-off Private automobile: 1 0 =F/B long-term park Rental car 1 0 =F/B Taxi 1 0<=taxi<=1 =F/B Single-party 0<=limo<=1 =F/B limousines Other single-party 0<=other =F/B modes modes<=1 Total Will be less than Sum column N/A N/A N/A Sum Average 100% unless column VTPP = there are no Total F/ HOV modes to the airport Total B 1 Typically applied to average daily air passengers. 2 Empty trips for commercial vehicles can be calculated if data is available or estimated based on knowledge of the service. Taxi regulations at the airport will influence the number of empty vehicle trips. Source: DMR Consulting Vehicle-Miles Traveled Savings in vehicle-miles traveled (VMT) is also a measure of performance and is a benefit derived from offering the offsite terminal and transportation link. An offsite terminal located 15 miles from the airport that attracts as many customers as does an offsite terminal located 10 miles away offers 50% more savings in regional VMT, even though the number of vehicle trips saved from each offsite terminal is equal. For an offsite terminal and transportation link located at a site with little or no public trans- portation access, it is reasonable to assume customers will use low-occupancy modes to access the offsite terminal. Thus, there will be no savings in VMT between the trip origin or destination and the offsite terminal. The savings in VMT will occur between the offsite terminal and the airport: Net savings in VMT net vehicle trips saved distance between offsite terminal and airp port For an offsite terminal and airport transportation link located at an intermodal facility, some customers may take advantage of high-occupancy modes to the offsite terminal to use the air- port transportation link. Prior to the introduction of the airport transportation link, these cus- tomers may have taken low-occupancy modes to the airport. The savings in VMT for this type of trip would be greater than the distance between the off- site terminal and the airport. If a significant number of the offsite terminal customers use HOV modes to transfer to the airport transportation link, data for estimating the savings in VMT between the origin or destination point and the offsite terminal can be gathered as part of a user