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NATIONAL NCHRP REPORT 664 COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Measuring Transportation Network Performance

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TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2010 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* OFFICERS CHAIR: Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington VICE CHAIR: Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY Allen D. Biehler, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg Larry L. Brown, Sr., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Norfolk, VA William A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles Eugene A. Conti, Jr., Secretary of Transportation, North Carolina DOT, Raleigh Nicholas J. Garber, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, and Director, Center for Transportation Studies, University of Virginia, Charlottesville Jeffrey W. Hamiel, Executive Director, Metropolitan Airports Commission, Minneapolis, MN Paula J. Hammond, Secretary, Washington State DOT, Olympia Edward A. (Ned) Helme, President, Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City Debra L. Miller, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Corporate Traffic, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Mandeville, LA Steven T. Scalzo, Chief Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, WA Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO Beverly A. Scott, General Manager and Chief Executive Officer, Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority, Atlanta, GA David Seltzer, Principal, Mercator Advisors LLC, Philadelphia, PA Daniel Sperling, Professor of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science and Policy; Director, Institute of Transportation Studies; and Interim Director, Energy Efficiency Center, University of California, Davis Kirk T. Steudle, Director, Michigan DOT, Lansing Douglas W. Stotlar, President and CEO, Con-Way, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Peter H. Appel, Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT J. Randolph Babbitt, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA George Bugliarello, President Emeritus and University Professor, Polytechnic Institute of New York University, Brooklyn; Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC Anne S. Ferro, Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S.DOT LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC Edward R. Hamberger, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC David T. Matsuda, Deputy Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT Victor M. Mendez, Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC Robert J. Papp (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC Cynthia L. Quarterman, Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Peter M. Rogoff, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT David L. Strickland, Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Joseph C. Szabo, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT Polly Trottenberg, Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy, U.S.DOT Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC *Membership as of July 2010.

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM NCHRP REPORT 664 Measuring Transportation Network Performance CAMBRIDGE SYSTEMATICS, INC. New York, NY UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND, CENTER FOR ADVANCED TRANSPORTATION TECHNOLOGY College Park, MD RESOURCE SYSTEMS GROUP Burlington, VT Subscriber Categories Aviation Highways Marine Transportation Motor Carriers Planning and Forecasting Public Transportation Railroads Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2010 www.TRB.org

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY NCHRP REPORT 664 RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed research provides the most effective Project 08-67 approach to the solution of many problems facing highway ISSN 0077-5614 administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local ISBN 978-0-309-15492-5 interest and can best be studied by highway departments individually Library of Congress Control Number 2010932893 or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the 2010 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. accelerating growth of highway transportation develops increasingly complex problems of wide interest to highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of COPYRIGHT INFORMATION cooperative research. Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining In recognition of these needs, the highway administrators of the written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials published or copyrighted material used herein. initiated in 1962 an objective national highway research program Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this employing modern scientific techniques. This program is supported on publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of the FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, Association and it receives the full cooperation and support of the method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for Federal Highway Administration, United States Department of educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission Transportation. from CRP. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies was requested by the Association to administer the research program because of the Board's recognized objectivity and understanding of NOTICE modern research practices. The Board is uniquely suited for this purpose as it maintains an extensive committee structure from which The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; it the Governing Board of the National Research Council. possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and to review this state and local governmental agencies, universities, and industry; its report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. relationship to the National Research Council is an insurance of The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved objectivity; it maintains a full-time research correlation staff of by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. specialists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the research directly to those who are in a position to use them. researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation The program is developed on the basis of research needs identified Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. by chief administrators of the highway and transportation departments The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research and by committees of AASHTO. Each year, specific areas of research Council, and the sponsors of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not needs to be included in the program are proposed to the National endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Research Council and the Board by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. Research projects to fulfill these needs are defined by the Board, and qualified research agencies are selected from those that have submitted proposals. Administration and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Research Council and the Transportation Research Board. The needs for highway research are many, and the National Cooperative Highway Research Program can make significant contributions to the solution of highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement rather than to substitute for or duplicate other highway research programs. Published reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP REPORT 664 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Senior Program Officer Megan A. Chamberlain, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Hilary Freer, Senior Editor NCHRP PROJECT 08-67 PANEL Field of Transportation Planning--Area of Forecasting Nicholas Compin, California DOT, Sacramento, CA (Chair) Daniel Blevins, Wilmington (DE) Area Planning Council, Newark, DE Daniela Bremmer, Washington State DOT, Olympia, WA Eric T. Hill, Metro Plan Orlando, Orlando, FL Dan Lamers, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington, TX Jerome M. Lutin, Holland, PA Mark B. Nelson, Minnesota DOT, St. Paul, MN Karen Seggerman, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL David Kuehn, FHWA Liaison Martine A. Micozzi, TRB Liaison

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FOREWORD By Lori L. Sundstrom Staff Officer Transportation Research Board This guidebook provides methods for integrating performance measures from individ- ual transportation modes and multiple jurisdictions and for developing new measures, if needed, to monitor transportation network performance. These network performance mea- sures can be used to improve system management, planning, and investment decisions and can be applied to various scenarios. The guidebook should be of immediate use to practi- tioners in state, regional, or local governments; specially designated authorities; or those in the private sector who are responsible for measuring, operating, and investing in the per- formance of multimodal and/or multijurisdictional transportation networks. Transportation systems typically span multiple jurisdictions, serve common markets, and often provide overlapping services within regions and corridors. Most research for devel- oping transportation system performance management highlights the tools, frameworks, and guidelines necessary for performance program creation and implementation; research has not sufficiently examined ways of integrating system-level programs in order to mea- sure the performance of multimodal and/or multijurisdictional transportation networks. Transportation system users may navigate across transportation systems owned, oper- ated, and maintained by numerous public agencies and private organizations without regard to the controlling entity; users may tend to perceive this collection of systems as a "seamless" transportation network. Data and indicators that can be used to measure per- formance across multiple modes and multiple jurisdictions are increasingly necessary to enable various agencies and organizations to plan for and manage a multimodal and/or multijurisdictional transportation network and to improve the likelihood that a collection of systems can function, or continue to function, effectively as a network. Under NCHRP Project 08-67, Cambridge Systematics, Inc., (1) conducted an in-depth analysis of the potential for integrating or developing measures for gauging the performance of multimodal and multijurisdictional transportation networks and (2) developed a hand- book for use as a reference by transportation agencies when implementing network perfor- mance measures across modes and/or jurisdictions. To meet the project objectives, the research team (1) documented the state of practice for network performance measures in state DOTs, regional transportation authorities, metro- politan planning organizations, corridor coalitions, and local governments; (2) described methods and conditions that support the development of network performance measures; (3) developed in-depth case studies that demonstrate the successful application of network performance measures; (4) developed potential cross-jurisdictional and cross-modal per- formance measures that can be applied to generic network scenarios, identifying data

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sources, needs, and issues for each scenario while weighing the feasibility of implementa- tion based on factors such as policy or institutional bias and cost implications; and (5) cre- ated a guidebook to be used as a reference by transportation agencies when implementing network performance measures.

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CONTENTS 1 Chapter 1 Introduction 1 Purpose of the Guidebook 1 Organization of the Guidebook 2 Chapter 2 Understanding Network Performance Measurement 2 Network Performance Measurement Framework 6 Introduction to the Scenarios 8 Chapter 3 Regional Scenario--Defining Community Goals Across Jurisdictions 8 Scenario 8 Case Studies 8 Building Blocks 13 Chapter 4 Regional Scenario--Multimodal and Multistrategy Investment Prioritization 13 Scenario 13 Case Studies 13 Building Blocks 20 Chapter 5 Peer-to-Peer Scenario--Multistate Partnership for System Operations 20 Scenario 20 Case Studies 20 Building Blocks 24 Chapter 6 Peer-to-Peer Scenario--Megaregional Partnership to Address Growth 24 Scenario 24 Case Studies 24 Building Blocks 28 Chapter 7 Intra-Agency Scenario--Linking Planning and Operations at a State DOT 28 Scenario 28 Case Studies 28 Building Blocks 32 Chapter 8 Conclusion 32 Summary of Building Blocks 33 Summary

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34 Appendix A Key Literature 40 Appendix B Detailed Case Studies 75 Appendix C References Note: In some instances, illustrations and tables in this report have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the Web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.