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1 CHAPTER 1 Introduction Performance measurement has become increasingly com- Though many transportation agencies understand the inter- mon at transportation agencies as they strive to improve their relationship of various components of the transportation sys- understanding of the outcomes of investments in the trans- tem, relatively few have attempted to work outside of existing portation system and as citizens increasingly require account- silos to consider tradeoffs and efficiencies in investments. Most ability for actions. As performance measurement has become transportation funding comes with strings attached and pro- more common, there is increased recognition that individual gram managers are naturally reluctant to invest in other pro- agencies cannot address the transportation systems they are grams or agencies, given needs that typically outstrip available responsible for in a vacuum, but must coordinate and interact resources. with other agencies to address the network performance im- Network performance measures can provide critical infor- plications of their decisions. mation to help decisionmakers understand better how their Network performance measurement is an attempt to evalu- choices impact fundamental outcomes for the transportation ate the transportation system as a whole, considering all modes system as a whole and for their customers. Without clear and of transportation, all potential strategies (e.g., capital versus useful information, breaking through existing barriers will operational investments), and all jurisdictions (e.g., state, always be a challenge. regional, and local). Network performance measurement involves breaking down the silos between different investment approaches and attempting to consider tradeoffs and efficien- Organization of the Guidebook cies across systems. Agencies have become interested in network The guidebook provides an introduction to network per- performance both because of a recognition that investments formance measurement and examples of how network per- made on one mode or jurisdiction may affect the performance formance measurement can be applied to specific scenarios. of other modes or jurisdictions and because limited resources Chapter 2 describes network performance and how it can be are creating a need to invest transportation resources as effi- applied to address congestion and other transportation ciently as possible. challenges. This section will likely be of interest to all be- cause it defines network performance and describes how to Purpose of the Guidebook apply it. Chapters 3 through 7 provide windows into the im- plementation of network performance measures through a This guidebook provides an introduction to network per- set of scenarios. These sections apply the framework de- formance measurement oriented toward transportation plan- scribed in Chapter 2, and readers will likely be interested in ning practitioners. It will help agencies begin to understand only the scenarios relevant to their situations. The scenarios · The potential uses and benefits of considering network are introduced in Chapter 2. Finally, Chapter 8 summarizes performance measurement and the findings of the analysis and provides a set of recom- · How agencies can begin to adopt and implement network mended steps for beginning to address network performance performance measures. measurement.