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40 APPENDIX B Detailed Case Studies This appendix provides detailed information about each of Within the regional long-range planning process, CDTC the case studies conducted for this effort. Findings from these has explored questions about the region's future by under- case studies were integrated into the scenario chapters of the taking extensive engagement with individuals, groups, and guidebook. They are presented here related to the primary parties that extend beyond traditional MPO outreach efforts. scenario they supported. They use core performance measures relating to both aggre- gate system performance and supplemental performance measures relating to specific elements of the systems. CDTC's Regional Scenario--Defining performance measures have been used as a national proto- Community Goals Across type. The agency was one of the earlier MPOs to pay atten- Jurisdictions tion to system reliability, land use compatibility, and a wide State and regional policy, program, project, and operational range of environmental impacts. CDTC and its members decisions can have significant implications for local commu- have been active in providing significant support for com- nities. Conversely, local transportation projects and opera- munity planning, transit service design, intermodal develop- tional strategies can have impacts far beyond the borders of ment, ITS deployment, demand management, and public the municipal boundaries. This scenario documents statewide participation. A regional vision is carried out at the local level and regional entities working collaboratively with local gov- to a degree that is exemplary (FHWA and FTA Certification ernments and transportation providers to assess the impacts Report, 2008). of these decisions on a systems level and fully understand and A high level of collaboration is evident in their many part- plan for the implications. nerships. At the policy and planning level, CDTC has transit agency, airport, port, and Thruway Authority representatives serving as voting members. The collaborative ITS deployment Capital District Transportation Committee, on NY 5 involving five municipalities, CDTA, and the New Albany, New York York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT) is a significant achievement and prototype. A regional ITS archi- Agency Name: Capital District Transportation Committee tecture has been cooperatively established. CDTC also has (CDTC) undertaken extensive community outreach programs though Scale: Regional its Community and Transportation Linkages program. Application: Multimodal Assessment/Interagency Planning CDTC has focused its efforts on many areas, including Partnership VMT reduction, congestion, environmental issues, land use planning, sustainability, and safety. There is a high level of Description of the Program/Initiative planning and operational coordination among state and local governments, transit providers, the public, and other agencies. The CDTC is the designated MPO for the Albany, New York, The collaborative planning processes have helped cultivate a area. The CDTC study area covers Albany, Rensselaer, Schenec- planning environment that has increased CDTC's impact on tady, and Saratoga counties, encompassing a total population the region. of almost 800,000 (U.S. Census, 2000). The majority of the The MPO staff view transportation as a means to an end. population is centered in the Albany metro area. This "end" is not just "Point B" but rather outcome-based

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41 community goals such as "quality of life." A key goal that A major strategy CDTC undertakes is the Community and guides all of CDTC's work is creating a "quality region." The Transportation Linkage Planning Program. CDTC established MPO has developed qualitative methods to measure quality this program to provide funding to communities to integrate of life and new quantitative measures, including reliability of land use and transportation planning. The driving force of network performance. the program is the idea that transportation and land use plan- ning play a role in reaching the region's potential. It also has been an avenue to link regional plans with local projects and Description of Systems-Level Effort a tool to reach consensus on how the transportation network CDTC's long-range plan, New Visions, is performance- should perform. The Linkage program's objectives are to based and stakeholder-driven. The updated 2030 plan con- tinues CDTC's focus on travel behavior and land use issues Support urban revitalization and redevelopment of exist- that provided the foundation for the 2021 plan.7 CDTC makes ing areas; connections to its visioning and planning processes and fur- Improve street connectivity through access management; ther links these with performance measures to assess the sys- Enhance and develop activity centers and town centers; tem. New Visions 2030 stresses the need for urban investment Enhance and develop transit corridors and environments and concentrated land use that will lead to sustainable growth that support transit; and an improved quality of life. CDTC's approach to large- Encourage a greater mix and intensity of land uses; scale, presently unfunded "big-ticket" initiatives is to consider Develop bicycle- and pedestrian-friendly design standards; them as part of a vision toward which the Region can strive Create an integrated multimodal transportation network; (http://www.cdtcmpo.org/rtp2030/c-bigideas2.pdf). These and big-ticket items in the recent update of New Visions include Protect open space. Land use, transit, and environment: Since 2000, CDTC has initiated a total of 61 Linkage studies Suburban town development centers; in the region, making its integrated transportationland use Bus service expansion, BRT program with bus-oriented program one of the most extensive in the nation. By provid- development; ing funding for cities, towns, and villages to prepare local Guideway transit system with transit-oriented develop- transportation plans consistent with the New Visions plan, ment; CDTC has helped increase the amount of local commitment Travel demand management program; and to the regional plan and improve local coordination of trans- Clean, efficient vehicle program. portation and land use planning (FHWA and FTA Certifica- Highway/corridor: tion Report, 2008). Managed lane program; CDTC also has focused efforts over the past several years Street reconstruction and reconfiguration; on transportation demand management (TDM) activities. Roadway widening and connection programs; In partnership with CDTA and other organizations, CDTC Intelligent traffic management program; began a pilot TDM program in 2001 and continues TDM Video surveillance and enforcement program (ITS); and efforts today. Jointly administered TDM programs include Comprehensive traffic safety program. a web-based carpool matching program, guaranteed-ride- home program for transit users and carpoolers, a cash sub- CDTC's highway strategies do not include major capacity sidy for transit passes through public employee unions, and a expansion. CDTC has discovered through its planning and 6-month cash subsidy toward public or private transit services public engagement processes that a focus on highway expan- to encourage downtown employers to establish commuter sion will not help reach many of its systemwide goals. Although programs. the region experiences congestion, delay often results from In the planning process, CDTC widely engages the public incidents and other causes of non-recurrent congestion rather to help link strategies and measures to goals. CDTC staff than excess demand. CDTC chooses strategies that are more believes that all performance measures should be first approved aligned with regional goals, such as increasing highway reli- through public process. For example, public opinion polls ability. Strategies that will improve reliability include man- have shown that people are willing to tolerate traffic conges- agement and operations strategies to improve network tion levels if there are improvements to transit, walking, performance, such as ITSs and traffic management systems. biking, safety, and landscaping. This interest in and under- standing of public opinion helps CDTC choose appropriate measures that will help align network performance with 7 http://www.cdtcmpo.org/rtp2030/say.htm community goals.

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42 Performance Measures In addition to CDTC's core measures, "supplemental" per- formance measures are used to describe more specific, facility- CDTC is a best practice case for systemwide performance related targets such as infrastructure and service. Supplemental measures because it makes decisions based on broad commu- measures include highway infrastructure, transit infrastruc- nity goals and highlights the most important links in the ture, goods movement, transit service, and human service. system for achieving efficiency rather than focusing on indi- CDTC also has specific bicycle and pedestrian transport mea- vidually owned networks. The agency uses long-term mea- sures, such as center lane-miles with bicycle accommodations. sures to address the impacts of the connection between land GHG emissions are an increasingly important measure for use and transportation planning. Systemwide measures are CDTC. The agency incorporates analysis of GHG emissions used to achieve such outcomes as regional mobility, accessi- into its planning process through "full cost analysis," including bility, connectivity, reliability, improved environment, and emissions analysis and an analysis of the cost of the potential quality of life. By adopting a broad perspective on the trans- effects of climate change in the region. CDTC applies a cost portation system, CDTC is collaboratively working toward analysis that includes an analysis of global warming costs to improving network performance in the region--across juris- major system decisions such as the evaluation of TIP projects dictions and modes. when applicable. CDTC also estimates the GHG emissions CDTC has both aggregate and supplemental performance resulting from its long-range transportation plan, complying measures (Table B.1). CDTC refers to aggregate performance with New York State Energy Plan Section 3.2 requirements that measures as core measures. These measures are targeted at require MPOs to estimate the energy and CO2 emissions from improving outcomes of network-level performance. Besides the their long-range plans and TIPs. CDTC has gone beyond the traditional MPO focus on congestion delay and LOS, CDTC state requirements and produced GHG emissions specific to measures reliability and level of community compatibility. year, operating speed, and functional class. Table B.1. CDTC core performance measures. Measurement Area Core Performance Measures Access Percentage of p.m. peak-hour trips transit accessible Percentage of p.m. peak-hour trips with transit advantage Percentage of p.m. peak-hour trips accessible by bicycle and walking Accessibility Travel time between representative locations Congestion p.m. peak-hour recurring excess person-hours of delay Excess person-hours of peak-hour delay per person miles traveled Excess person-hours of peak-hour delay per person Flexibility Reserve capacity on the urban expressway and arterial system (p.m. peak-hour vehicle miles of capacity) Safety Estimated annual societal cost of transportation accidents, millions of dollars ($M) [New PMs are under development] Energy p.m. peak-hour fuel consumption (thousands of gallons) Economic cost Annual vehicle ownership and operating costs for autos and trucks, millions of dollars ($M) Other monetary costs of transport: highway and transit facilities and service, parking facilities, environmental damage, millions of dollars ($M) Air quality p.m. peak-hour daily hydrocarbon (HC) emissions (kg) p.m. peak-hour daily nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions (kg) Land use Residential use traffic conflict: miles at LOS "E" or "F" Arterial land access conflict: miles at LOS "E" or "F" Dislocation of existing residences and businesses Community quality of life--factors that reflect community quality of life in the central cities, inner suburbs, outer suburbs, small cities and villages, and rural areas. Environmental Number of major environmental issues to be resolved to implement existing commitments Economic How does the transportation system support the economic health of the region? Source: CDTC Congestion Management Process, 2007. http://www.cdtcmpo.org/rtp2030/materials/cm-doc.pdf.

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43 Congestion management is another area in which CDTC To support this extensive network performance measure- has used performance-based planning measures. CDTC's new ment program, CDTC has a robust data collection and report- CMP is an update of the CDTC Congestion Management ing program. CDTC's data collection includes automatic System. The CMP incorporates a new performance measure traffic recorder counts; intersection traffic counts; vehicle, related to the reliability of the transportation system called truck, and pedestrian trip generation; vehicle classification the planning time index (PTI). CDTC's New Visions Working counts; bicycle and pedestrian shared-path volumes; transit Group B, consisting of state and regional members, works to ridership and park-and-ride lot usage; a variety of safety data, identify new meaningful performance measures and methods including crash location and frequency; and other data as nec- for evaluating travel needs.8 The need for a measure of relia- essary. All data collected by CDTC is organized and main- bility came from CDTC discussions about quality of travel. tained for access by state government, local municipalities, The question being considered was, "Is 15 minutes of recur- public and nonprofit agencies and groups, consultants, and ring traffic worse than occasional, nonrecurring congestion other interested parties. that lasts one hour?" Addressing this question led to the real- CDTC uses an extensive new database that records express- ization that reliability and LOS are different measures. For way speed and volume by lane every 15 minutes (the MIST example, I-87 has the same LOS as I-90 but a worse planning database). With the assistance of NYSDOT, CDTC developed time index, meaning that nonrecurring congestion disrupts new performance measures related to reliability. New oppor- travel time. Therefore, widening roads may not be a strategy to tunities for monitoring speed and delay on arterial corridors alleviate congestion because this is not a major solution for using GPS technology are being developed for data collection. this kind of traffic. Rather, operational strategies would prob- These new databases and expanded performance measures ably be most useful. will be used to revise the critical congestion corridors articu- CDTC considers the planning time index to be one of its lated in the CMP documents. most effective systemwide measures for determining network New opportunities for monitoring speed and delay on arte- performance. This index is developed using the NYSDOT's rial corridors using GPS and other technologies also are being MIST database that records expressway speed and volume by examined for data collection. CDTC is conducting tradeoff lane every 15 minutes. CDTC collaborates with NYSDOT to analyses to help analyze the actual congestion relief benefits manage the database. achieved from CMS projects. Other potential data sources are emerging for CDTC, including data from the NYSDOT TRANSMIT program. The CDTC Regional Operations Com- mittee also will continue to develop performance measures Planning Time Index for operations and management. CDTC's core performance Ratio of driving time on a "worse than average measures will continue to be incorporated into the CMP. delay day" (95th percentile) to a "free-flow day": PTI >1.0: trip would take longer time; Supporting Processes, Methods, and Conditions PTI =1.0: trip would take no extra time; and CDTC's collaborative planning processes have resulted in PTI 55 mph even on the a high level of consensus within the region. CDTC works with w or st" day. NYSDOT, CDTA, CDRPC, local and state governments, and local stakeholders. The MPO has worked with more than 34 municipal communities in its Community and Transporta- tion Linkage joint planning studies. CDTC funnels almost Qualitative measures are employed to measure community one-third of its federal money toward local communities compatibility and quality of life. The use of these quality-of- through the Linkage program. This program is a cornerstone life indicators emerged in the 1990s. At the time, a major inter- of CDTC partnerships with the community. CDTC also is state interchange was proposed to be built on the front lawn working with the Regional Operations Committee to refine of a community college. Impacts were not considered about new congestion management performance measures and is how the plan would affect community quality of life; most of collaborating with NYSDOT to develop procedures for the the focus was on improving LOS for the area. CDTC began tradeoff analysis and strategy analysis measures to help ana- making subjective measures about how compatible transporta- lyze the actual congestion relief benefits achieved from CMS tion plans were with the community quality of life, assigning projects. Levels A through F for community impact. CDTC also is part of the New York State Association of Metropolitan Planning Organizations (NYSMPO). This orga- 8 http://www.cdtcmpo.org/rtp2030/materials/wb-doc.pdf nization is working on planning and research efforts toward

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44 common goals and has pooled some federal planning funds transit options, safe and well-connected bicycle and pedes- on joint projects. Through the ongoing development of the trian facilities, a network of high-occupancy vehicle lanes, Safety Management System (based on NYSDOT's Safety and real-time information about conditions on every high- Management Information System), CDTC collects, analyzes, way and transit route in the region. and shares available regional safety data with regional safety partners, undertakes pilot safety projects, and uses regional Description of Systems-Level Effort GIS. CDTC is involved in the statewide NYSMPO Safety Working Group, collaborating with a wide variety of state The SACOG staff has been working on interregional travel safety partners to improve crash data systems in the state, studies, identifying Sacramento's interregional transporta- develop local crash rates, and develop standardized safety tion connections. These connections include major interstate audit processes. corridors, state highways, Amtrak passenger rail, intermodal The CDTC staff continues to work with regional partners station and bus express, freight rail, airport, and inland sea- in contributing to the regional GIS. GIS applications include port. SACOG uses measures and indicators to determine the the regional bike-hike trail maps, bike and pedestrian data status and condition of this interregional system. mapping and analysis, crash data mapping, and analysis for the Linkage studies. CDTC coordinates with NYSDOT, the Performance Measures NYS Department of Environmental Conservation, and others on updating natural and cultural resource maps for environ- Congestion delay mental planning and uses GIS in long-range planning. CDTC Congested VMT per household (region average); also works with CDRPC to process GIS data and incorporate Percentage of total travel in congested conditions in parcel-level data and high-resolution orthophotography for peak periods; and the entire region. Percentage of total travel in congested conditions mid- day period. Obstacles Travel time Percentage of trips less than 30 minutes long during peak One challenge that CDTC has been working on is using periods; performance measures to link the congestion management Percentage of trips less than 15 minutes long during process to the long-range planning process, thus aligning con- midday period; and gestion management strategies with broader community goals. Percentage of total transit trips less than 45 minutes long. Reaching CDTC's community-developed vision depends on Auto travel the successful outcome of many initiatives, including the New VMT per household (regionwide average). Vision principles, strategies, and actions. Transit travel Transit trips per 100 households. Travel mode choice SACOG Metropolitan Transportation Plan Percentage mode share of total trips. for 2035 Reasonable transit choice Agency Name: Sacramento Area Council of Governments Percentage of all transit stops served by at least one route (SACOG) with frequency 15 minutes or less. Scale: Regional Fairness by location Application: Multimodal Assessment/Interagency Planning Comparative average travel time per person (in minutes). Partnership Labor market Percentage of work trips less than 20 minutes duration; and Description of the Program/Initiative Percentage of households that can access downtown SACOG is the designated MPO for the counties of Sacra- within 30 minutes during peak periods. mento, Sutter, Yolo, Yuba, Placer, and El Dorado (except for Freight delivery the Lake Tahoe Basin). The Metropolitan Transportation Average travel time per truck trip (3+ axle trucks). Plan (MTP) for 2035 is proposed to chart a 28-year course for Service delivery transforming the region's transportation system by identify- Average V/C on urban freeways midday period. ing various problems in the metropolitan transportation sys- Commuter carpooling tem and proposing solutions that address those problems. Percentage of work trips by carpool; The MTP 2035 includes proposals for new and improved Air quality;

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45 Total VMT per day; and a comprehensive set of systemwide performance measures. Daily heavy truck VMT (3+ axle trucks). SANDAG also works to integrate demand management and Energy conservation capacity management. There are many ITS projects, corridor- Total VMT per day; and oriented projects, and strategic congestion management proj- Daily heavy truck VMT (3+ axle trucks). ects, such as HOT lanes, in the region. Supporting Processes, Methods, and Conditions Description of Systems-Level Effort SACOG has been recognized by the Environmental Protec- An important strategy for maximizing the efficiency of the tion Agency as one of the winners of a 2004 National Award region's existing transportation system is using performance for Smart Growth Achievement. Winners were recognized measures to manage the system. Although the region's sur- for innovative approaches to development that strengthen face transportation elements--freeways, roads, and transit community identity and protect the environment. SACOG systems--can be managed separately, they are interdepen- partnered with Valley Vision, which resulted in more than dent and require a comprehensive multimodal management 5,000 participants in the process of refining regional alterna- focus to achieve SANDAG's mobility goals. SANDAG refers tives for future growth. to this comprehensive approach as integrated performance The Sacramento region has several ITS cooperative efforts management. that are facilitated via the Sacramento Region ITS Partnership, an advisory committee made up of local and state transporta- Performance Measures tion personnel. There also is a multimodal, multijurisdic- tional "smart corridor" collaborative effort of the County The RTP uses performance measures to plan for a sce- of Sacramento, the Sacramento Regional Transit District, nario that, assuming reasonably expected revenue sources, Caltrans, the California Highway Patrol, and the American decreases traffic congestion in the region. Key highway per- River Fire District. formance indicators used to evaluate and improve congestion include Obstacles Speed; Traffic congestion within the region continues to signifi- Volume; cantly increase. Currently, the Sacramento Region has 2.2 mil- Vehicle hours of delay; lion people and it is anticipated the region's population will VMT; increase to 3.2 million in 2030. Limited interregional passen- Highway network peak-hour level of service; ger options and accessibility is a significant challenge through- Carpool and transit speed; and out the Sacramento Region. Transportation funding is not Work trip mode splits during peak periods. keeping up with the demand for transportation projects due to California and the Sacramento Region's increase in popu- lation and vehicle miles traveled. Supporting Processes, Methods, and Conditions The RTP, Mobility 2030, contains objectives that include increasing transit ridership, improving response to conges- SANDAG: Congestion tion problems, and regularly measuring the performance of Management Strategies the regional transportation system. The CMP is an integral Agency Name: San Diego Association of Governments aspect of the RTP and is updated every 2 years. The CMP (SANDAG) analysis is within the Systems Management section of the Scale: Regional RTP. CMP tools and strategies can be applied within the Application: Multimodal Assessment/Interagency Planning framework of an objectives-driven approach to address spe- Partnership cific transportation goals. SANDAG works with the U.S. DOT as a pioneer site in the Integrated Corridor Management (ICM) program. This fed- Description of the Program/Initiative eral initiative encourages the application of technology and Functioning as the region's MPO, SANDAG plans and commitment by network partners to reduce congestion along manages major elements of San Diego's regional transporta- corridors. SANDAG is managing the integration of corridor tion system. This MPO has integrated the congestion man- assets, such as tolling, value pricing, and bus rapid transit, agement process into the regional planning process and uses with ICM practices in the San Diego region.

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46 SANDAG works together with Caltrans on many initiatives. Vehicle operating cost savings; and Within systems management, their collaboration includes Other user costs. HOT lanes, development of corridor systemwide deficiency Finance plans, and performance monitoring efforts. The San Diego Facility operating costs; Transportation Management Center integrates Caltrans' Traf- Capital costs; fic Operations and Maintenance in a unified communication Operating revenues; and and command center that provides communications, surveil- Influence of finance on the economy. lance, and computer infrastructure to coordinate transporta- Growth management tion management on state highways. Population in regional geographies; Employment in regional geographies; Obstacles Jobs and housing balance in counties; and Population and jobs in regional growth centers and jobs The largest challenge in fighting congestion and improving in MICs. the mobility of people and goods in the region is the growing Economic prosperity population. Another large barrier to decreasing the amount Accessibility to high-wage employment; of traffic in the region has been finding adequate funding. Accessibility to cluster employment; and Accessibility to freight generators. Environmental stewardship Puget Sound Regional Council Vision 2040 Vehicle emission cost savings; (Destination 2030 Update) Tolling Initiative Runoff from impervious surfaces; and Agency Name: Puget Sound Regional Council Ability to retain open space. Scale: MPO/Regional Quality of life Application: Tolling/ITS/TDM Accident cost savings; Nonmotorized travel; and Description of the Program/Initiative Redundancy. Equity As one strategy in their Vision 2040 (Destination 2030 Geographic equity; Update), the Puget Sound Regional Council is integrating an Income equity; and impact analysis of six tolling alternatives on the region. The Distribution of benefits to passenger and freight users. outcomes of the analysis will be vetted through a series of management strategies and finally expansion strategies to Supporting Processes, Methods, and Conditions arrive at the final selection of alternatives. The system-level analysis is linked to the long-range plan- Description of Systems-Level Effort ning process for the region. All involved stakeholders must be on board to understand tolling as a demand management The alternatives are being analyzed based on their impact to tool, with implications across all aspects of the system (see the system and must accomplish the following: above categories). Improve the mobility of people and goods in the Puget Sound region; Obstacles Create efficient land use patterns for the provision of infra- No major obstacles were uncovered at this point. structure, facilities, and services; Promote economic prosperity; Protect the natural environment; Alameda Corridor Promote an overall high quality of life; and Distribute transportation benefits and costs equitably. Agency Name: Alameda Corridor Transportation Authority (ACTA) Scale: Corridor Performance Measures Application: Infrastructure Improvements System-level performance measures used in the Destina- tion 2030 Update fall under seven categories: Description of the Program/Initiative Transportation efficiency The Alameda Corridor is a 20-mile-long rail cargo express- Travel-time savings; way linking the ports of Long Beach and Los Angeles to the Reliability benefits; transcontinental rail network near downtown Los Angeles.

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47 The corridor runs primarily along, and adjacent to, Alameda ment train speeds in addition to reducing vehicular traffic Street. It is a series of bridges, underpasses, overpasses, and delays at grade crossings, thus reducing air and noise pollution street improvements that separate freight trains from street and improving safety. traffic and passenger trains, facilitating a more efficient trans- In 1985, SCAG created the Alameda Corridor Task Force, portation network. The project extends through or borders which included members of PAC with the addition of the the cities of Vernon, Huntington Park, South Gate, Lynwood, California Public Utilities Commission and each of the eight Compton, Carson, Los Angeles, and the County of Los cities along the corridor. PAC worked on the institutional Angeles. Construction of the corridor began in April 1997. arrangements and funding and developing consensus on Operations began in April 2002. various aspects of the project. The Alameda Corridor project evolved from over a decade In 1989, the two San Pedro Ports provided the seed funding of study of increasing freight/cargo demand in the port area for design and environmental studies and also took the lead in and the impact on the surrounding transportation infrastruc- creating an agency to oversee design and construction. Dur- ture and community. The ports of Long Beach and Los Ange- ing the same year, the cities of Los Angeles and Long Beach les are the two busiest container ports in the country and, formed a Joint Powers Authority (JPA) called "Consolidated together, the fifth busiest port complex in the world. The rail Transportation Corridor Joint Powers Authority." The JPA network serving the ports was not sufficient to accommodate name was later changed to "Alameda Corridor Transportation rapidly increasing cargo volumes. The Alameda Corridor con- Authority." The goal of ACTA was (and still is) to create a solidated four low-speed branch rail lines, eliminating conflicts more efficient rail system that would reduce traffic delays and at more than 200 at-grade crossings, providing a high-speed improve environmental quality along the corridor. ACTA's freight expressway, and minimizing the impact on communi- seven-member Governing Board includes two representatives ties. Specific benefits of the project, as noted by the Alameda from each port, a member of each city council, and a repre- Corridor Transportation Authority (ACTA), include sentative of the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transporta- tion Authority (previously LACTC). The Alameda Corridor More efficient freight rail movements; environmental impact report/environmental impact state- ment was approved in 1993. Construction started in 1997. Reduced traffic congestion; Following the April 2002 opening, operations have been Improvements to Alameda Street; overseen by a four-member Alameda Corridor Operating Multiple community beautification projects; Committee, staffed by ACTA personnel, which includes one Reduced train emissions and reduced emissions from idling representative each from the Port of Long Beach, Port of Los cars and trucks; Angeles, Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railway, and Union Reduction in delays at railroad crossings; and Pacific Railroad. The Governing Board continues to provide Reduced noise pollution from trains. policy direction to ACTA staff regarding additional projects and planning studies. Description of Systems-Level Effort Planning, constructing, and operating the Alameda Corridor Performance Measures was a multijurisdictional and multi-agency effort to improve The first phase of the initial PAC Alameda Corridor study, transportation and economic issues associated with signifi- completed in 1982, dealt with the problems of highway access cantly increased growth in port-cargo demand, at a corridor to the ports. In this phase, the study addressed a number of and a regional level. problem areas and recommended a cost-effective set of high- In October 1981, the Southern California Association of way improvements, including the widening of certain streets. Governments (SCAG) created the Ports Advisory Committee The second phase, a study of rail access, was completed in 1984. (PAC) in response to growing concerns about the ability of Additional highway improvements were recommended, but the surface transportation system to accommodate increas- the focus of the second phase was concern over the impact of ing levels of traffic in the port area. PAC members included projected train traffic on communities north of the ports. local elected officials as well as representatives of the ports of On the basis of a review of online and published material, Los Angeles and Long Beach, the U.S. Navy, the Army Corps it is assumed that performance measures developed for the of Engineers, affected railroads, the trucking industry, and the initial planning studies focused on the economic impact of (former) Los Angeles County Transportation Commission the corridor (e.g., jobs created/removed, change in gross state (LACTC). product), community impact (e.g., neighborhood disruption, In 1984, on the basis of PAC's recommendations, the SCAG environment justice), air quality (e.g., emissions reduction), Executive Committee adopted a plan for the consolidation of and congestion reduction (e.g., average daily train traffic and all port-related railroad traffic onto the former Southern cargo volumes and the impact on on-road truck and passen- Pacific San Pedro Branch. The proposed plan promised to aug- ger vehicle traffic, speeds, and level of service).

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48 The Alameda Corridor Air Quality Benefits Report (Final highly concentrated in the areas through which the corridor Report June 2005) was published on the ACTA website. This passed. The dissenting cities were focused primarily on the study was commissioned to quantify the direct air quality ben- local economic benefits of the project and believed inadequate efits of the corridor as well as the benefits of new infrastruc- attention was being paid to their economic development needs ture projects that would support more use of the corridor (this ultimately led to a lawsuit which ACTA won)--hence and therefore create additional air quality benefits. Perfor- the multiple local economic development incentive programs mance measures used for this study include Emissions Reduc- that ACTA eventually implemented. This should be inves- tion (tons)--Reactive Organic Gas, CO, NOx, PM10, and SOx. tigated to assess if/how ACTA used technical analysis and particular performance measures to highlight economic, or Supporting Processes, Methods, and Conditions other, benefits of the project for either the courts involved in the lawsuit or the jurisdictions and communities affected by The Alameda Corridor passes through jurisdictions of eight the project. cities: Los Angeles, Long Beach, Vernon, Huntington Park, Information used for this description, and more on the Lynwood, South Gate, Compton, and Carson. In addition to Alameda Corridor, can be found at the following web pages: these cities, the Alameda Corridor study efforts involved pri- http://www.acta.org/newsroom_factsheet.htm. vate railroads, the two San Pedro Bay ports, and other state, http://www.acta.org/. regional, and local public agencies, including SCAG. Coordi- http://www.acta.org/PDF/Alameda%20Corridor%20AQ nation and consensus building with various agencies (as well as %20Benefits%20Report_061005.pdf. with the general public) was a complex process but essential to http://www.metrans.org/pdfs/AlamedaCorridorWhite the success of the project. The process involved multiple stake- Paper.pdf. holders, each with its own self-interest: ports that were invest- ing large sums of money, private railroads that were going to share a common right of way with their competitors, regional I-15 Integrated Corridor Management Project agencies such as SCAG and Los Angeles County Metropolitan Agency Name: San Diego Association of Governments Transportation Authority that were interested in easing traffic (SANDAG) congestion, and the cities through which the corridor passed. Scale: Corridor The informal process of building consensus and more formal- Application: Data collection, evaluation, and dissemination ized process to define ACTA Board membership and author- ity took time and was difficult to negotiate, but ultimately Description of the Program/Initiative ensured successful implementation of the project. ACTA addressed many community issues by implement- The San Diego ICM Project is one of eight sites selected by ing a large number of economic development programs for U.S. DOT under the national Integrated Corridor Manage- local residents. It also developed the Alameda Corridor Busi- ment Initiative. ness Outreach Program to assist disadvantaged businesses in The I-15 Corridor is the primary artery for the movement learning about and competing for work on the project. ACTA of commuters, goods, and services from inland northern San also developed formal MOU agreements with each city along Diego County to downtown San Diego. The I-15 ICM effort the corridor to address construction mitigation measures. will allow the corridor to serve a growing number of inter- Innovative funding arrangements were developed to pay regional trips through a multi-institutional partnership and for the project itself. The $2.4 billion Alameda Corridor the use of multimodal transportation improvement strategies. was funded through a unique blend of public and private The I-15 ICM will allow the region to address regional trans- sources. Revenues from user fees paid by the railroads will portation needs by accelerating existing SANDAG "Regional be used to retire debts incurred in planning and building Transportation Plan" planning efforts; optimizing operations the project. from an overall network perspective as opposed to individual network perspective; and allowing for more efficient response Obstacles to variations in demand among networks. A key obstacle was the mid-Corridor cities that were con- Description of Systems-Level Effort cerned about the local effects of construction activity, increased rail traffic, and other negative impacts on residents and busi- The I-15 ICM operational goals are as follows: nesses adjacent to the corridor. These cities argued that while the benefits of the project were widely dispersed regionally The corridor will give travelers the opportunity to make and even nationally, its external costs and adverse impacts were seamless and convenient shifts among modes;

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49 The corridor will enhance mobility for people, goods, and Obstacles services; ICM will enhance current levels of existing interoperabil- No major obstacles were uncovered. ity between field elements and functional environments or systems; and Maryland I-270 Integrated Corridor ICM places a focus on improving throughput, productivity, Management Project connectivity, safety, and accessibility. Agency Name: Agency Lead: Maryland State Highway Administration (SHA) The I-15 Integrated Corridor Management System (ICMS) Scale: Corridor includes a number of integrated systems and facilities: Application: Data collection, evaluation, and dissemination Lane control systems; Advanced transportation management systems; Description of the Program/Initiative Advanced traveler information system (511); The Maryland I-270 ICM Project is one of eight sites Regional transit management systems; selected by U.S. DOT under the national Integrated Corridor Emergency management systems (e.g., WebEOC); Management Initiative. Managed-lane control system; Agencies/organizations currently partnering for the I-270 Regional event management system--public safety CAD ICM project include the systems; and Regional high-bandwidth microwave network. FHWA; FTA; Research and Innovative Technology Administration; Performance Measures Maryland SHA; I-15 ICM performance measures will be based on existing Maryland Transit Administration; RTP performance measures such as Montgomery County Department of Public Works and Transportation; Average travel time (minutes) by mode (door-to-door); The University of Maryland; and Work trip average travel speed (per auto trip); Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority Work trip average travel speed (per transit trip); (WMATA). Work trip average speed (per carpool trip); and The I-270 Corridor is in Montgomery County, Maryland, Percentage of total travel in congested conditions (peak just outside Washington, DC. The corridor is approximately period and all day). 20 miles long and consists of various transportation networks, including Supporting Processes, Methods, and Conditions The Freeway Network (including I-270); The San Diego I-15 ICM will be managed collaboratively The Arterial and Connector Route Network (including and cooperatively through ongoing partnerships among the MD-355); SANDAG, Caltrans, the Metropolitan Transit System, the The MARC Commuter Rail Network; North County Transit District, the California Highway Patrol, The WMATA Metrorail Network; and the cities of San Diego, Poway, and Escondido. The Maryland Transit Administration Commuter Bus The San Diego I-15 ICM partners have improved the level Network; of institutional coordination among stakeholders by develop- The WMATA Metrobus Network; and ing and executing an MOU and developing a project charter. The Montgomery County Ride-On Bus Network. They are leveraging the existing regional institutional infra- structure. The I-270 Corridor, also referred to as the Technology Cor- The San Diego I-15 ICM has been selected by U.S. DOT for ridor, links significant suburban residential concentrations participation in Stage 2: Analysis, Modeling, and Simulation, with the major employment regions of Northern Virginia, under the national ICM initiative. This funding support and downtown Washington, DC, and the Capital Beltway, and the strength of the regional partnership increase the potential along the I-270 Corridor itself. As with most urban areas in the for successful future ICM deployment. Ultimate deployment United States, the trend in the metropolitan Washington, DC, will likely hinge on selection by U.S. DOT for Stage 3: ICM area has been that development expands outward from the Deployment. city. However, most commuters in the I-270 Corridor are

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50 heading not into downtown Washington but to other sub- Addressing nonrecurring congestion through urban locations. Because of high-traffic volumes in the corri- Enhanced multimodal approaches to managing inci- dor, and the impact that incidents even outside the corridor dents; can have on I-270 conditions, congestion has become a mon- Better tools/mechanisms for sharing multimodal real- umental problem. time information; and The goals of the Maryland I-270 ICM project include the Better tools to support operations-oriented and traveler following: decision-making capabilities. Enhanced signal operation/optimization capabilities on Optimize mobility, reliability, and safety; the corridor arterial network and improved arterial net- Strengthen corridor-level decision support; work system monitoring. Enhance reliable, real-time information to customers; and Improved transit management and transit parking system Promote multimodal operations support and travel within management capabilities. the corridor. Improved traveler information delivered pretrip and en route along with multimodal decision support capabilities for individual trips. Description of Systems-Level Effort Improved real-time system monitoring capabilities across The I-270 ICMS will focus on traveler and operations all modes and networks. management decision support by emphasizing corridor transportation systems management, traveler information An I-270 ICM System Requirements document has been dissemination, and systems evaluation by leveraging and developed to identify the initial set of requirements necessary improving upon current data collection, fusion capabilities, to build the Maryland I-270 ICMS in a manner that will and corridor transportation system integration. By consoli- ensure the combined stakeholder vision of having transporta- dating, disseminating, and archiving transportation-related tion operations within the I-270 ICM corridor work at peak data from stakeholder agencies in the corridor, the I-270 efficiency by optimizing the use of the capacities of the trans- ICMS will portation modes in the corridor. Though the project has developed a specific ICM Steering Provide improved information for a variety of purposes, Committee, future plans are to integrate the institutional including corridor transportation planning, management, infrastructure within existing entities such as the newly traveler information, and emergency response; formed Metropolitan Area Transportation Operations Coor- Provide corridor transportation data fusion to allow an dination (MATOC) Partnership. MATOC has been formal- overall view of the corridor's transportation network; ized through a regional MOU and includes representation Upgrade transportation data exchange capabilities of par- from the ticipating agency systems in the corridor as well as the region; Maryland DOT; Upgrade the multimodal transportation systems manage- Virginia DOT; ment capabilities of the stakeholder jurisdictions for corri- District of Columbia DOT; dor transportation operations; Washington Metropolitan Transportation Authority; and Upgrade traveler information dissemination capabilities at Transportation Planning Board (TPB) at the Metropolitan the corridor system level; Washington Council of Governments [Note: The TPB is Upgrade corridor multimodal incident response and emer- the designated MPO for the National Capital Region]. gency preparedness capabilities; and Provide the means to easily access corridor transportation The rationale for moving ICM into the MATOC partner- data and produce corridor-level performance measures ship is that successes and lessons learned in the I-270 Corri- reports for decisionmakers. dor could be duplicated in other metropolitan-area corridors. Funding for the initial planning of the I-270 ICM and the Performance Measures creation of a Concept of Operations, System Requirements, and Data Collection Plan has come from U.S. DOT under the In developing the Maryland I-270 ICM Concept of Opera- national ICM initiative along with matching funds from the tions, a list of potential performance measures was identified Maryland SHA. based on Corridor operational goals. During Stage 2: Analy- The critical operational needs of the corridor, as identified sis, Modeling, and Simulation (AMS), the I-270 ICM Team, in the Concept of Operations, include the following: with support from the University of Maryland and the U.S.

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64 of the significance of SR 520 and Interstate 90 to the regional readers. Changeable message signs will display variable toll transportation system, investments made at the corridor level rates for vehicles not meeting the occupancy requirements, will have significant regional impact as well. and a camera-based system will be deployed for violation enforcement. The managed-lane network will be used as the backbone of Performance Measures a BRT system, which will be subsidized through the toll rev- There are no predetermined measures at this time, but enues. The BRT service will operate within the managed-lane measures involving congestion intensity, scope, duration, network between downtown Miami and destinations north number of vehicles, and number of passengers are candidates along I-95 to the I-95/Broward Boulevard Interchange. As a for evaluating improvements. result, bus service across the county line will be seamless, eliminating the need for transfers at the Golden Glades park- Supporting Processes, Methods, and Conditions and-ride facility. Reliability of bus service also will improve, as bus speeds are anticipated to increase to 50 mph once buses The U.S. DOT has initiated UPAs with cities that have operate within a managed lanes environment (compared to applied for Urban Partnership status. Five cities were selected 22 mph previously). New express bus service routes will be as urban partners in August 2007: Miami, Minneapolis provided north-south along U.S. 441/SR 7 and SR 817 and St. Paul, New York City, San Francisco, and Seattle. These east-west on Hollywood/Pines Boulevard. Other transit cities received priority consideration for available federal dis- improvements include the implementation of transit signal cretionary funds (about $1 billion in total) across a dozen priority at 50 intersections along U.S. 441/SR 7 and SR 871; grant programs, including transit funds, ITS funds, and Value improvements to the I-95/Broward Boulevard park-and-ride Pricing Pilot Program funds. lot; two new uniquely branded stations for the express/BRT services; and construction of pedestrian facilities at one of the Obstacles two new stations. No obstacles have been identified for this project. Description of Systems-Level Effort The partnership allows for investment across modes and Urban Partnership Agreements--Miami jurisdictions to address congestion on a regional level. Agency Name: U.S. DOT, Florida Department of Transporta- tion, Miami-Dade MPO, Broward County MPO, Broward Performance Measures County Transit, Miami-Dade Transit, Miami-Dade Express- way Authority, and Florida's Turnpike Enterprise There are no predetermined measures at this time, but Scale: MPO/Regional measures involving congestion intensity, scope, duration, Application: Tolling/ITS/TDM number of vehicles, and number of passengers are candidates for the improvement evaluation process. Description of the Program/Initiative Supporting Processes, Methods, and Conditions The MiamiFt. Lauderdale region is creating a 21-mile managed-lane facility on I-95 between I-395 and I-595. The The U.S. DOT has initiated UPAs with cities that have managed-lane network will consist of four managed lanes applied for Urban Partnership status. Five cities were selected (two in each direction) between downtown Miami and the as urban partners in August 2007: Miami, Minneapolis I-95/Broward Boulevard Interchange in Broward County. St. Paul, New York City, San Francisco, and Seattle. These The managed lanes will allow free access for registered vehi- cities received priority consideration for available federal dis- cles with more than three occupants, while vehicles with cretionary funds (about $1 billion in total) across a dozen one to two occupants will be required to pay variable tolls grant programs, including transit funds, ITS funds, and Value that will be adjusted based on demand. Toll rates will be Pricing Pilot Program funds. adjusted as often as every 3 minutes in order to maintain free-flow conditions on the managed lanes at least 90% of Obstacles the time. Open-road tolling at freeway speeds will occur through the use of toll transponders and video license plate No obstacles were identified for this project.

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65 These documents include citizen transportation surveys, a City of Boulder, Colorado weekly information packet, a transportation metrics presen- Agency Name: Boulder Public Works Department (City of tation to the city council, and modal shift reports. Boulder, Colorado) Scale: Local Obstacles Application: Multimodal Assessment/Interagency Planning Partnership No major obstacles were uncovered at this point. Description of the Program/Initiative Peer-to-Peer Scenario-- Multistate Partnership The City of Boulder, Colorado, is a national leader in the for System Operations promotion of alternative modes such as walking, biking, and transit. The Boulder Department of Public Works Transporta- tion Division provides for the mobility of persons and goods Mid-Atlantic Rail Operations Study by developing and maintaining a transportation system with (MAROps) Phases I and II emphasis on transit, pedestrian, bicycle, and vehicular trans- portation; street maintenance, and bikeway maintenance. The Agency Name: I-95 Corridor Coalition, NJDOT, DelDOT, division also manages the Boulder Municipal Airport. PennDOT, MDOT, VDOT, CSX, Norfolk Southern, Amtrak The Transportation Advisory Board (TAB) consists of five Scale: Multistate members appointed by city council, each to 5-year terms. Application: BenefitCost Analysis TAB reviews and recommends changes to the Transportation Master Plan based on metric assessments. The city has a com- Description of the Program/Initiative prehensive performance measurement system. The Master Plan states current funding scenarios and provides action Phase I: This study is an initiative of the I-95 Corridor Coali- plans to improve the system further. The City of Boulder's tion, five Mid-Atlantic states, and three railroads to address 2003 Transportation Master Plan has won two awards: the regional transportation as a system. The study recognized the 2004 Metro Vision Award for the Denver Regional Council need to manage system capacity by building system-oriented of Governments and the National 2004 Institute of Trans- institutional relationships and developing system-responsive portation Engineers (ITE) Best Practices Award. funding strategies. The objective of this study was to identify choke points or physical points in the rail system (bridges, tun- nels, track segments) that have reduced capacity and opera- Description of Systems-Level Effort tional capabilities--in comparison to the rest of the system--in The city has achieved great success with both intermodal the Mid-Atlantic region's rail network and develop a program and multimodal transportation networks. Many of their per- to improve freight and passenger flows through those areas. formance measures are system-level measurements, such as Phase II (in progress): This project will undertake a more the Citywide Mobility Index that was created by aggregating detailed analysis and explanation of the benefits outlined in the corridor levels of service and facility performance mea- the Phase I MAROps work. The key objectives of MAROps sures for pedestrian, bicycle, transit, and roadway. Phase II are to review improvements since Phase I, update the freight demand forecasts for the region, and review the MAROps program; detail the benefits of the revised MAROps Performance Measures program, moving from the regional level analyzed in Phase I to Alternative modes as a percentage of total trips; show benefits accruing to individual states, rail/highway corri- VMT; dors, industry sectors, and potentially major metropolitan Percentage of arterial lane-miles congested; areas; and develop and demonstrate transferable methods of Air quality (CO2, NOx, and VOC emissions); and assessing the public benefits of publicprivate partnerships in Facility performance (bicycle, pedestrian, and transit). financing rail improvements. Supporting Processes, Methods, and Conditions Description of Systems-Level Effort The City of Boulder creates several documents that reflect This multistate effort looks at congestion in the rail net- citizen opinions, transportation patterns, and other trends. work on a regional level. The partners have come together to

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66 identify the chokepoints that have the greatest impact on the Table B.5. Potential measurement areas region and in Phase II will be measuring these impacts on the by beneficiary. many stakeholders. Area of Potential Performance Measures Performance The performance analysis for MAROps Phase II focuses on Beneficiary Measurement determining who benefits from investments in freight rail Region, states, Economic impacts infrastructure and who should pay for those investments. The metro areas, System efficiency analysis currently is in development but will use a handful of and nation Environmental performance measures for each of several potential benefici- Maintenance costs aries, including the Mid-Atlantic region and each of the sev- Safety eral states and metro areas affected by the investments, the nation as a whole, the freight and passenger railroads provid- Freight railroads Market share ing service in the Mid-Atlantic, and railroad passengers, ship- Throughput pers, and ports who use the rail system to travel or deliver System reliability goods. General areas for measurement are listed in Table B.5. Environmental impacts Safety Operations and Supporting Processes, Methods, and Conditions maintenance cost The project is sponsored by the I-95 Corridor Coalition, Passenger railroads Ridership providing a forum for agencies to convene to discuss trans- Throughput portation on a regional level. Using matching funds, the System reliability coalition was able to secure additional funding from each Environmental impacts state for this project and the necessary buy-in from DOTs Safety and railroads to make the project effective. The culmina- Operations and tion of Phase I was a list of 71 projects that the partners maintenance cost agreed on as the key rail bottlenecks in the region. The Rail passengers Travel costs opportunity to present these findings for consideration Travel time during reauthorization created an incentive for the part- Access to service ners to participate. Shippers Business cost Obstacles Access to service Service reliability Turning a study into policy and implemented projects and Transit time obtaining funding for the projects remain challenges. Ports Market access Business cost I-95 Corridor Coalition Vehicle Probe Project Throughput Safety Agency Name: I-95 Corridor Coalition; core participants include NJDOT, DelDOT, PennDOT, Maryland SHA, VDOT, NCDOT. Participation is open to all coalition mem- bers from Maine to Florida. Scale: Multistate Region/Corridor, including primarily free- rail organizations from Maine to Florida (including the District ways and major arterials of Columbia), with affiliate members in Canada. I-95 Corridor Application: Data collection, evaluation, and dissemination Coalition members work together to reduce congestion, increase safety and security, and ensure that the entire trans- portation network supports economic vitality throughout the Description of the Program/Initiative region. The coalition pursues a wide range of projects and activ- The coalition is a partnership of state DOTs, regional and ities related to providing reliable and timely travel information local transportation agencies, toll authorities, and related and coordination of incident response and freight movement organizations, including law enforcement, transit, and port and within the corridor and across different modes of travel.

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67 The I-95 Corridor Coalition's Vehicle Probe project is a Use and integration of the data has begun in several areas. ground-breaking initiative, intended to provide comprehen- The project monitoring website was implemented by the sive multistate monitoring of traffic flow within the corridor. vendor (INRIX). This website provides all agencies with a The objective of this project is the acquisition of traffic flow common view of the corridor using a real-time color-coded information using probe technology (GPS-equipped vehicle map, as well as real-time speed and travel-time information fleets, cellular geolocation, or a combination of the two) for through the same interface. The same website provides both freeways and signalized arterials. The information pro- access to a data archive maintained by the vendor. The duced by this project will be used to support a number of archive is logged at 5-minute intervals using the segmenta- coalition activities such as corridorwide traveler information, tion used in the data feed (INRIX uses Traffic Message incident management, and performance measurement. The Channel codes). Other archive and data distribution net- wide-area coverage provided by this project is designed to works such as ICAT and ISN as well as member agency sys- support the unique planning, engineering, and operational tems have begun integrating the vehicle probe data into needs of a heavily traveled, multistate corridor encompassing their data formats and network segmentation for use by several metro areas. their member constituents. Member agencies will benefit from the Probe Project by receiving traffic flow information relevant to their respec- tive jurisdictions, including both in-state and border-state Performance Measures data. The data from the system will support the operation Apart from the individual agency use of the data, the I-95 of 511, display of travel times on variable message signs, Corridor Coalition is preparing for corridorwide perfor- and traffic management during incidents. The data also will mance measures. The targeted measures include travel time, be available to support all internal applications such as travel-time reliability, and all of their derivatives. Also of planning and engineering. Coalition members also will be interest are incident duration metrics as they apply to major able to utilize the contract developed for this project to incidents of interjurisdictional impact. expand coverage within their jurisdictions, to aid in web- site development, and to interface with existing traffic management systems. Supporting Processes, Methods, and Conditions This project is unique in that, for the first time, information The I-95 Corridor Coalition is a partnership of state will be available to support implementation of long-distance, departments of transportation, regional and local trans- interjurisdictional diversions that are characteristic of major portation agencies, toll authorities, and related organiza- incidents that have a multistate impact, as well as the metrics tions, including law enforcement, transit, and port and rail and performance measures accompanying such large-scale organizations from Maine to Florida (including the District events. In addition, mobility performance measures such as travel times and reliability can now be developed for the cor- of Columbia), with affiliate members in Canada. I-95 Cor- ridor using a common data source that spans political and ridor Coalition members work together to reduce congestion, jurisdictional boundaries. increase safety/security, and ensure that the entire trans- portation network supports economic vitality throughout the region. The coalition pursues a wide range of projects and Description of Systems-Level Effort activities related to providing reliable and timely travel infor- The coalition and member agencies have targeted the use mation, coordination of incident response and freight move- of the probe data for various applications and uses. Targeted ment within the corridor and across different modes of travel, applications include and electronic systems to make payment of tolls and transit fares easier. Because the efficiency of passenger and freight Project monitoring website for use in member's Traffic movement through the region is not limited to one mode or Management Centers; facility, the work of the coalition encompasses all modes and Central archiving service; highway facilities, with an emphasis on facilitating long- Providing input to corridorwide management tools such distance transportation that traverses state jurisdictional as the Integrated Corridor Analysis Tool (ICAT) systems boundaries. By leveraging resources, sharing information, and the Information Systems Network (ISN); and coordinating programs, the coalition adds value to the Integration into member agency 511 and other traveler individual member organization's activities and provides a information services; synergy for more dynamic and seamless transportation solu- Enhancement of incident management for events that span tions throughout the corridor. jurisdictional boundaries; and Seed funding for the project was provided by the coalition Corridorwide operations performance measures. via federal funds. The core system, funded for 3 years, includes

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68 1,500 miles of freeways and 1,000 miles of arterials spanning Description of the Program/Initiative New Jersey to North Carolina. Member agencies have the The SJV region has a total population of 3.4 million resi- option to expand coverage or extend the duration of cover- dents within eight counties: Kern, Tulare, Kings, Fresno, age up to a full 10 years. New Jersey already has added 424 Madera, Merced, Stanislaus, and San Joaquin. The California miles of freeway coverage to encompass the majority of free- Partnership for the San Joaquin Valley forecasts that the SJV way miles within New Jersey. North Carolina and South Car- will grow by an additional 1.4 million people by the year olina are planning similar expansions, with many other states 2020--a population increase of more than 40%.15 By the year contemplating similar actions. 2050, the regional population is expected to grow to more A key aspect of the project was the development of a data than 7 million. The forecasted growth, as well as current con- rights and ownership policy that allowed for liberal use of the cerns that include mobility, environment, quality of life, and data by the coalition and member agencies while still protect- economic development, has motivated regional planning ing the vendors' ability to resell the data to other commercial partnerships. clients. Historically, SJV transportation planning agencies, the Key documents include the project RFP, contract, and data California Department of Transportation (Caltrans), and the use agreement. All of these are available on the coalition web- FHWA have coordinated components of the transportation site at http://www.i95coalition.org/vehicle-probe.html. network to meet the needs of interregional travelers. In 1992, the eight Regional Transportation Planning Agencies (each Obstacles within a council of government [COG] structure) entered into an MOU to ensure a coordinated regional approach to Several unanticipated difficulties arose during implemen- transportation and air quality planning efforts. The MOU tation of the contract. These difficulties arose not from the established a coordinated system of transportation and air language or terms of the contract but from the nature of the quality planning, programs, and data analysis/forecasting. coalition and the structure of the procurement. As the coali- In 2006, Governor Schwarzenegger signed Executive Order tion is not a legal business entity, the contract for the traffic S-5-05 that established the California Partnership for the SJV. monitoring system was executed between INRIX and the Uni- The main focus of the unique publicprivate partnership was versity of Maryland (on behalf of the coalition and its mem- to improve regional economic vitality and quality of life. One ber organizations). The difficulty in implementing the terms of the six major initiatives within the California Partnership's and conditions stemmed from the multistate nature of the 2006 Strategic Action Plan is to build a 21st-century trans- coalition. Because the contract was executed in Maryland, portation mobility system. The California Partnerships Trans- under Maryland law, the participation of other public entities portation Workgroup developed a Transportation Action was fraught with issues of state sovereignty and contracting Plan with specific goals, objectives, and indicators that can be regulations and restrictions. To implement the contract, each used by the entire region. participating coalition member needed to recognize and bind To develop a comprehensive plan for the region, the eight themselves to the terms of the contract and take upon itself the valley COGs jointly applied for grants from the California liability for any breach of terms originating from its access and Department of Business, Transportation and Housing and use. The process involved a data use agreement (DUA) to be the SJV Air Pollution Control District. The SJV Blueprint executed by member organizations to that effect. Because of Process has drawn on the work of the California Partnership varying state laws on contracts, the form of the DUA required to help support coordinated data collection and integration customization for different coalition members, a process that needs for the region. The Blueprint Process is "an unprece- required unanticipated time because of the required legal dented example of local jurisdictions demonstrating increased review and input. regional identity and a unified purpose in addressing the region's challenges."16 All eight COGs within the valley agreed Megaregional Partnerships to participate in the Blueprint Process. The Blueprint Process to Address Growth has consisted of a substantial public outreach effort and sce- nario planning initiative that used a common set of goals and measurements. In the implementation phase, the COGs expect the Blueprint plan to be used to improve the perfor- San Joaquin Valley Blueprint mance of the transportation system and improve overall qual- Agency Name: California Partnership for the San Joaquin ity of life in eight valley counties. Valley (SJV) Scale: Megaregional 15 www.sjvpartnership.org Application: Multi-Agency Planning 16 http://www.fresnocog.org/files/Blueprint%20Summary%20-%20Brochure.pdf

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69 The SJV faces many transportation challenges, and with a multijurisdictional planning and the coordination of infra- growing population, these challenges are expected to increase. structure plans with broader community goals. Congestion on the major corridors (Highway 99 and Inter- Guiding questions for the Blueprint planning process state 5) has increased commute travel times, delayed goods include the following: movement, and worsened air quality. Land use trends in the valley have contributed to these problems. How should we grow? The public continues to express frustration with these Where should we grow? issues, and other concerns, such as loss of open space and How will we travel around the region? agriculture land, water supply depletion, poor air quality, lack How will growth affect our environment? of quality jobs and affordable housing, and a belief that the How will growth impact our overall quality of life? quality of life in the region is diminishing. These megaregional planning processes will help develop a The Blueprint Process has included public meetings and macro strategy with recommendations incorporated into a scenario planning sessions that involved a broad array of regional Blueprint plan. The processes will ideally align local stakeholders. Engaging the public at this level is an enor- and regional goals and enable the region to better understand mous undertaking but over the past 2 years the Blueprint how local decisions (e.g., land use) affect the entire region. Process has successfully engaged communities in a bottom- up approach. This public outreach is helping produce coor- dinated regional planning that is aimed at improving the Description of Systems-Level Effort transportation system and other outcomes. Figure B.1 illus- The California Partnership and the Blueprint planning trates the bottom-up approach of the planning process that process for the SJV have different yet complementary strate- moves from local input to a regional vision yet ultimately gies. Each initiative has a transportation component. These keeps decision-making power and implementation strategies joint planning efforts are helping to coordinate a regional within the jurisdiction of local communities. vision and a common set of goals, performance indicators, and The Blueprint planning processes and the California Part- strategies. nership within the SJV are megaregional planning initiatives. The California Partnership's Strategic Action Proposal was The results of these planning processes include the coordina- tion of a regional vision, goals, objectives, and strategies. developed in October 2006. The recommendations include Further, the region is sharing data and using coordinated the building of a 21st-century transportation mobility sys- network-level performance measurements. tem. The strategic actions for this recommendation include Coordinated planning on a widespread regional scale will the following: potentially bring about regionwide programs and operational agreements. Corridor 99 is one example in which the coun- Implement various corridor plans and help improve ties recognize the need to work together to fund and imple- mobility within the region; ment strategies needed to reach the goals of the Blueprint Implement transportation projects that support the Process and the California Partnership. Another example is regional land use strategy; organized data collection and monitoring efforts. Implement a plan to facilitate goods movement in the region; Develop a sustainable multimodal system; and Ensure that any state high-speed rail system, if imple- Performance Measures mented, meets the needs of the region and helps achieve The California Partnership Transportation Work Group economic development goals. developed a set of transportation system indicators. These indicators will be used to track progress on how well the The SJV Blueprint Process involves the integration of trans- region is meeting the strategic goals developed by the Califor- portation, housing, land use, economic development, and nia Partnership. These indicators include environmental data to produce scenarios to the year 2050. The starting point for the Blueprint Process was the creation of a Throughput and velocity, "status quo" scenario projection of how all eight local commu- Roadway conditions, nities would grow based on current trends. Alternative scenar- Vehicle hours of delay, ios were developed based on various land use, transportation, Quality rating of roadway conditions, conservation, and housing plans. The Blueprint Process will Transit availability hopefully provide a decision-making tool that combines cur- Goods movement productivity, rently separate and distinct data sets into one that will allow for Safety,

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70 Other Local Local Level Decision Makers Cities Counties MPO Governing Boards Local Decision Process Regional Level San Joaquin Great Valley Blueprint Regional Advisory Committee Valley Partnership Center (Concepts) MPO Governing Boards Local Decision Making Process (Local Committees) Agriculture Education Local Level Local Outreach Community Community County Environmental Environmental Member Agencies Groups/Agencies Groups/Agencies && LAFCO Building Disadvantaged Community Groups Economic Cultural Development Communities General *subject to change Public/Other Source: Adapted from San Joaquin Valley Regional Blueprint Process. Figure B.1. Blueprint planning process. Roadway enhancements, and counties but also within counties, using one set of exclusive Deployment of ITSs. performance measures was a challenging task. Therefore, the COGs agreed to use one common set of valleywide measures The Blueprint Process committees developed a set of per- as base measures and use additional measures based on their formance measures to be reviewed and adopted by each COG own unique planning needs and county goals. Table B.6 pre- for the Blueprint planning process. Valleywide goals and per- sents the valleywide measures adopted by each COG. formance measures were developed with input from COG During the second valleywide Blueprint Summit, facilitated project managers and the SJV Professional Planners Group. by GVC in January 2009, the public officially recommend a They are being used throughout each component of the Blue- preferred scenario. Figures B.2 and B.3 show the transporta- print Process. All performance measures used by counties tion-related performance measures used at the summit to during the Blueprint processes were reviewed, evaluated, and compare scenarios (Scenario A is status quo). Only two trans- selected based on the current data available and the current portation-related performance measures were used in the forecasting capabilities. process: VMT and GHG emissions from mobile exhaust. Sce- Though additional performance measures could be valu- nario B was the scenario chosen by each county in the county- able in evaluating the scenarios, some COGs currently lack level Blueprint processes. At the regional summit held in the enhanced modeling capacity necessary to generate them. January 2009, participants chose Scenario C--a scenario that Moreover, because there are differences not only between increases density levels almost twice as high as does Scenario B.

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71 Table B.6. Blueprint valleywide performance measures. Source: Merced County, http://www.sjvalleyblueprint.com/process.htm. The counties within the SJV also share data and modeling Information Center for the Environment that had been techniques to monitor the transportation system and to plan developed in support of the California Partnership. Since the for a coordinated regional system. Part of the Blueprint fund- inception of the Blueprint Process, the MSC and COG mod- ing was directly used for GIS, land use modeling, and visual- elers have used UPlan to coordinate modeling efforts and ization technology to forecast where urbanization will be by have collected regional GIS data to help develop the valley- 2050. The land use model, UPlan, developed by the Univer- wide performance measures. All county-level scenarios in sity of California at Davis (UC Davis), provided technical and each Blueprint county planning process were analyzed using data support to the COGs and local governments in this proj- land use, traffic, and air quality models in order to compare ect. This information was coordinated across the different the scenarios based on performance measures. counties to produce megaregional models. An SJV Regional Modeling Group was initiated to update Supporting Processes, Methods, and Conditions valleywide traffic and land use models and to coordinate GIS and other data. Local transportation planners met to evalu- The California Partnership for SJV is composed of 10 work- ate modeling tools and select models. In 2006, the SJV Blue- ing groups, including the Transportation Working Group, print Model Steering Committee (MSC) and the Land Use which has adopted a 10-year Strategic Action Plan for the Modeling User Group were formed, resource agencies were region. The mission of the Transportation Working Group is consulted, existing data was converted and harmonized, and to "build innovative transportation systems to increase travel regional models were developed. In March, 2007 the MSC choices and improve mobility, regional and state goods hosted an environmental resource workshop featuring map- movement, air quality, and economic prosperity" (California ping and modeling data from the eight COGs and UC Davis Partnership website).

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72 Figure B.2. Performance measure for regional Blueprint Summit. The eight SJV COGs are working with the GVC. The GVC, The Blueprint Regional Advisory Committee is central to a nonprofit community development organization, acts as the entire Blueprint effort. The committee has several pur- the regional facilitator for the valleywide portion of the Blue- poses: to make regional recommendations pertaining to the print Process. The GVC also provides the headquarters for creation of the San Joaquin Valley Blueprint, act as a cham- the Transportation Working Group of the California Part- pion of the final Blueprint vision, advocate its implementation nership and is helping facilitate the regional Blueprint Process. with local jurisdictions, and promote the regional strategies at With the help of GVC, each COG has facilitated a dialogue to the state and federal levels. There also is a Blueprint Profes- engage local communities in a visioning process that has been sional SJV Professional Planners Group consisting of regional incorporated into a valleywide vision. The bottom-up approach land use and other professional planners from each county is anticipated to encourage local decision makers to embrace that provided a regional framework to develop the guiding and promote the regional vision. The California Partnership's principles used in the community outreach and scenario Working Groups developed the macrostrategies for the region; planning process. An interregional/intraregional/local partner- these strategies are being examined through the Blueprint plan- ship called the Blueprint Learning Network helps coordinate ning process. The SJV Air Pollution Control District also has shared data and learning experiences about the megaregional been an active partner. planning effort. The SJV Regional Policy Council, consisting The COGs also have worked closely with Caltrans and UC of two elected officials from each COG, made the final Blue- Davis on many technical activities. The UC Davis Information print scenario recommendation based on county and regional Center for the Environment has supported the California planning sessions. Partnership and has modeled scenarios and helped develop performance measures for the Blueprint Process. The SJV Obstacles members have a history of working together on air quality issues because they are part of the same regional air quality Challenges lie in maintaining the bottom-up approach of basin. Modelers that have worked together across counties on the Blueprint Process. The COGs have each engaged local air quality issues also have joined efforts to work on the Blue- jurisdictions and decision makers in the Blueprint Process, print Process. These modeling partnerships have been a key fac- discussing a very challenging issue: local land use decision tor to the success of a common set of performance measures. making. While local jurisdictions are often weary of regional Figure B.3. Performance measure for regional Blueprint Summit.

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73 plans that have implications for local decision making, the Performance Measures bottom-up approach of the Blueprint Process has facilitated MDOT tracks performance measures in its annual Attain- a collaborative process. In the implementation phase, region- ment Report. However, these measures are not linked to proj- wide plans will need to be analogous to the plans developed ect selection and funding. by each county through the Blueprint planning process or local jurisdictions could view the plan as top-down. In addition, making the connection between the measures Supporting Processes, Methods, and Conditions in the Attainment Report and project funding decisions has Maryland transportation officials support the importance been challenging. of mode-neutral funding. By facilitating the bottom-up approach of the project recommendations, they involve the Intra-agency Scenario--Linking perspective of all levels of government. Planning and Operations at a State DOT Obstacles Creating the connection between the measures in the Maryland DOT Transportation Trust Fund Attainment Report and project funding decisions remains a challenge. Agency Name: Maryland DOT (MDOT) Scale: Statewide Application: Flexible funding Oregon Transportation Plan Agency Name: Oregon Department of Transportation Description of the Program/Initiative (ODOT) Scale: Statewide The Maryland Transportation Trust Fund is unique in that Application: Multimodal Assessments/Interagency Planning it allows complete flexibility across modes in project prioriti- Partnerships zation and selection. There is no required funding level for any given mode, thereby allowing the agency to select proj- ects based on their impact to the network, regardless of modal Description of the Program/Initiative category. The Oregon Transportation Plan (OTP) is the State of Each county annually provides DOT with its Priority Let- Oregon's long-range transportation plan. The OTP was orig- ters, outlining each jurisdiction's top transportation prior- inally developed in 1992 and the most recent update was ities for state funding. These project requests are then vetted completed in 2004. The OTP provides a 20-year vision for the by the Secretary of MDOT, the Department's Modal Oregon DOT, identifies transportation system needs across Administrators, and the Maryland Transportation Author- all transportation modes in the State, and provides an evalu- ity to determine which projects should be added to the Con- ation of the level and type of investment appropriate for solidated Transportation Plan (CTP). Projects are selected transportation. based on their support of the objectives and goals set in Maryland's Transportation Plan, LOS, safety, maintenance issues, how the projects may encourage economic develop- Description of Systems-Level Effort ment, availability of funding, and the input received from This statewide effort looks at transportation system needs the public and local officials. The governor and secretary across all transportation modes. Of note was the focus make the final decision about which projects to include in on analyzing and modeling the impacts of transportation sys- the CTP each year. tem operations investments relative to capacity investments. The OTP included a detailed needs analysis for system oper- Description of Systems-Level Effort ations, a white paper that identified the potential for oper- ations to improve system performance in Oregon, and an The flexibility of the Maryland Transportation Trust Fund analysis of a future planning scenario called "Maximum enables a systems-level perspective, on a statewide basis, for Operations" which assumed future state funding would be funding across all modes and jurisdictions. However, the put toward highway and transit operations. The state plan state lacks a process to link quantitative measures systemati- attempted to provide a balanced analysis of different invest- cally to this process. ment priorities--capacity expansion, operations, tolling--as

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74 well as the impact of alternative future scenarios--land use Supporting Processes, Methods, and Conditions change, declining revenue, and change in fuel prices. The OTP was developed by the Transportation Develop- ment Division (TDD) of the Oregon DOT but had substan- Performance Measures tial support from other divisions to estimate transportation The OTP included a rigorous performance analysis of sev- system needs and analyze scenarios. For the "Maximum eral plan scenarios. Measures examined how much individual Operations" scenario, TDD and the ITS Office worked performance measures were expected to increase or decrease closely together to define and analyze the scenarios. The for a scenario relative to a baseline scenario. Specific perfor- analysis for the OTP was generated primarily using the state mance measures included travel demand forecasting model, which is a sophisticated planning tool that analyzes the relationship between trans- Average delay, portation, land use, and the economy. Travel time, Transportation costs relative to income, Employment and employment accessibility, Obstacles Average trip distance, VMT per trip, The OTP presents a high-level analysis that convincingly Total land consumption, demonstrates that the Oregon DOT should invest more in Land consumption relative to economic output, transportation system operations at a statewide level. How- Transit accessibility, and ever, translating that policy guidance into specific transporta- Safety (crash) costs. tion projects poses a challenge.