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8 CHAPTER 3 Regional Scenario--Defining Community Goals Across Jurisdictions Scenario New York, region. The Albany urbanized area, also known as the Capital District, consists of major highways, including I-87 In urbanized areas, MPOs provide a well-established forum and I-91, and key corridors, including NY Routes 7, 9, and 155. for identifying community goals across multiple jurisdictions. CDTC uses core performance measures relating to aggre- In many MPOs, goals and objectives traditionally consider gate system performance and supplemental performance mea- the limited set of investments that MPOs have direct control sures relating to specific elements of the systems. CDTC has, or influence over--primarily highway and transit capacity for many years, included system reliability, land use compat- investments. A network performance approach can help to ibility, and a wide range of environmental impacts in its plan- incorporate other major considerations, such as highway and ning process. CDTC and its members also have been active in transit operations, nonmotorized programs, land use policy providing significant support for community planning, tran- decisions, and other nontraditional concerns. This scenario sit service design, intermodal development, ITS deployment, describes how MPOs can use network performance measure- demand management, and public participation. ment to help define regional goals and the full range of strate- CDTC uses performance measures to evaluate strategic gies necessary to meet them. goals and outcomes as well as operational and individual The coordination of multiple agencies within a region facility-level measures. It works with the public and many local can help in determining and driving network performance. governments in the long-range planning process to develop However, multiagency coordination of performance data and goals and strategies, and then works with local jurisdictions to measures can be challenging. Moreover, it is often difficult to implement the strategies through programs and projects. share common network measures across systems if the differ- Additional examples of multilevel agency coordination ent agencies have divergent goals. The typically uncoordinated have been taken from the San Diego Association of Govern- interplay between local and regional transportation and land ments (SANDAG), Sacramento Area Council of Governments use planning compounds these issues. (SACOG), and Minnesota Department of Transportation Rather than developing data collection and performance (MnDOT). measures individually, agencies can collaborate and harmo- nize measures and strategies across jurisdictions in order to reach broader regional goals and outcomes. MPOs can play an Building Blocks important role in facilitating this collaboration across local Establish Partnership Agreements involvement and public engagement in the planning stages. State support from transportation agencies and strong working The fundamental building block for this scenario is the relationships between state, regional, and local governments establishment of partnership agreements with the several also are important in fostering the development of a systemwide agencies that have responsibility for transportation infra- perspective that can help to improve network performance. structure within the region. Case Studies Collaboration Across Levels of Government The primary case study for this scenario is the Capital District Though all MPOs include participation by local govern- Transportation Committee (CDTC), the MPO for the Albany, ments and state and regional agencies within the region, indi-
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9 vidual agencies often either are not active in the MPO process typical MPO planning efforts. For example, a major multi- or do not collaborate to define regional goals. CDTC uses a col- strategy program CDTC undertakes is the Community and laborative approach to understand the region's transportation Transportation Linkage Planning Program.1 This unique network and move toward regional goals, such as livability. planning process engages regional economic entities, envi- CDTC collaborates with the New York DOT, regional plan- ronmental groups, business leaders, university administra- ning and transit organizations, and local jurisdictions to estab- tion, chambers of commerce, neighborhood associations, and lish goals and to define and implement strategies. Examples regional community organizations. include the following: In the planning process, CDTC widely engages the public to help link strategies and measures to goals. CDTC staff · CDTC has defined congestion management performance believes that all performance measures should be first approved measures and tradeoff analysis through a Regional Opera- through public process. For example, public opinion polls have tions Committee. shown that people are willing to tolerate traffic congestion · CDTC contracts with the Capital District Regional Plan- levels, if there are improvements to transit, walking, biking, ning Commission (CDRPC) and funds that agency's work safety, and landscaping. This interest in and understanding of in demographic data and forecasts and in regional land use public opinion helps CDTC choose appropriate measures policy discussions. that will facilitate aligning of network performance with com- · CDTC includes land use measures in its CMP, including munity goals. For example, CDTC conducted public opinion dislocation of existing residences and businesses and com- surveys about congestion and realized that reliability mea- munity quality-of-life measures. sures are more important and meaningful to the public than · CDTC works with local municipalities to implement joint are other congestion measures, such as level of service (LOS), planning studies. Because MPOs have no land use author- speed, and volume. ity, CDTC established a program that funnels almost one- third of its funding to communities for projects that integrate land use and transportation planning. The pro- Define Performance gram links regional plans with local projects and provides Measurement Framework a tool to reach consensus on how the transportation net- MPOs typically already have in place the basic compo- work should perform. nents of a performance measurement framework that can be expanded to address network performance. Most MPOs define regional goals and objectives as part of their regional trans- portation plan (RTP). This section describes how network Since the early 1990s, MnDOT and the Metropol- performance can help MPOs in addressing a broader array of itan Council (the MPO for the Twin Cities region) considerations in their planning processes. have worked to build a multiagency partnership around transit called "Team Transit" to improve Assess Network Performance in the Context transit operations and increase transit usage. of Long-Range Goals Other agencies involved have included the Cen- ter for Transportation Studies at the University Long-range goals provide a key mechanism for developing of Minnesota, the Minnesota State Patrol, repre- and communicating regional priorities. Integrating network sentatives from the Twin Cities, and other munic- performance requires crafting goals that emphasize the ipalities served by transit. Team Transit focuses performance of the network. CDTC focuses on the most on maximizing the number of people moving important links in the system for achieving efficiency, rather throughout the Twin Cities, rather than the than on individual system components/facilities. The agency number of vehicles. has created a land use transportation compatibility index based on traffic intrusions in residential areas and the com- patibility between arterial and local access. Extended Outreach to Local Governments and Communities Effective partnerships with local governments and com- 1 More information on CDTC's Community and Transportation Linkage Planning munities often require a level of outreach that goes beyond Program can be found at http://www.cdtcmpo.org/linkage.htm.
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10 SANDAG publishes an annual performance mon- grated a Regional Bicycle, Pedestrian, and Trails itoring report for its Regional Comprehensive Master Plan into its Metropolitan Transportation Plan each year. The section on urban form and Plan. SACOG's goals include doubling the percent- transportation includes indicators on smart age of bike/walk trips and reducing bicycle and growth, transit, commute mode shares, travel pedestrian fatalities by 20% by 2020. times, and volumes on key corridors (including evaluation of corridor improvements on these measures), annual hours of traffic delay per traveler, and the percentage of the CMP net- work that is deficient. Measures are derived SANDAG's Integrated Performance Management from state, regional, and local data and are used (IPM) system provides a multimodal approach to by SANDAG and its member governments to system management that recognizes the inter- help choose strategies to meet regional goals dependence of travel modes. Ongoing monitor- and improve the overall transportation system. ing helps assess consistency with regional policies. ITS is a critical element of the IPM systems net- work used to monitor performance. ITS helps to interconnect the region's local transportation Use Multiple Strategies to Achieve Goals management centers and integrates data from the modal management systems. Completion of A network performance focus on regional goals means this network will enable the modal agencies to considering multiple strategies. CDTC identifies transporta- cohesively manage the overall performance of tion strategies that are aligned with regional goals, including the local and regional transportation systems. · Reliability. CDTC analyses of congestion reveal that adding capacity to major corridors may push bottlenecks further up a roadway. Strategies to improve network reliability also Develop Measurement and Data are considered, including intelligent transportation systems Collection Methodologies (ITS) and traffic management systems, managed lanes, and highway monitoring programs. Considering network performance requires developing · Land use. In 2001, a CDTC- and Capital District Transit data sources and measures that can help transportation agen- Authority (CDTA)-led Land Use and Transportation Con- cies conduct system-level evaluations. cepts Plan for New York Route 5 led to a bus rapid transit (BRT) concept that is now included in expanded form in Identify and Evaluate Nontraditional the region's long-range plan. Performance Measures · Corridor approach. CDTC's Integrated Transportation Corridor Effort provides a stakeholder-driven approach to Network performance requires moving the CMP beyond developing and evaluating major regional corridors. The simple measures of congestion and delay. CDTC and its 2008 Hudson River Crossing study considered mobility, planning partners have developed "aggregate" performance operational efficiency, and community in a study of the measures targeted at improving overall network performance bridge systems along the Hudson River using travel model (Table 3.1). Besides the traditional MPO focus on accessibil- and microsimulation tools and suggested that the network ity, safety, and congestion (especially delay and LOS), CDTC of bridges did not need widening to meet the needs of the includes measures of region's travelers. · System reliability. Traditional MPO congestion manage- ment planning tends to address recurring congestion, using simple averages of travel-time delay and volume/capacity SACOG's Bicycle and Pedestrian Funding Program (v/c) measures. These measures do not consider variations awards local grants for bicycle and pedestrian in the experiences of travelers. For example, a network improvements using performance measures, such approach might consider both average travel time and travel- as changes in miles of bikeways and sidewalks and time variability. CDTC's CMP uses the planning time index impact of bicycle and pedestrian investments on to capture network performance. The index uses express- air quality and public health. SACOG recently inte- way speed and volume by lane in 15-minute increments in key corridors.
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11 Table 3.1. CDTC core performance measures. Area Core Performance Measures Access · Percentage of p.m. peak-hour trips transit accessible · Percentage of p.m. peak-hour trips with transit advantage · Percentage of p.m. peak-hour trips accessible by bicycle and walking Accessibility · Travel time between representative locations Congestion · p.m. peak-hour recurring excess person-hours of delay · Excess person-hours of peak-hour delay per person-miles traveled · Excess person-hours of peak-hour delay per person Flexibility · Reserve capacity on the urban expressway and arterial system (p.m. peak-hour vehicle miles of capacity) Safety · Estimated annual societal cost of transportation accidents ($M) Energy · p.m. peak-hour fuel consumption (thousands of gallons) Economic Cost · Annual vehicle ownership and operating costs for autos and trucks ($M) · Other monetary costs of transport: highway and transit facilities and service, parking facilities, environmental damage ($M) Air Quality · p.m. peak-hour daily hydrocarbon (HC) emissions (kg) · p.m. peak-hour daily nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions (kg) Land Use · Land use transportation compatibility index (residential use traffic conflict: miles at LOS "E" or "F" and arterial land access conflict: miles at LOS "E" or "F") · Dislocation of existing residences and businesses · Amount of open space · Community quality-of-life factors that reflect community quality of life in the central cities, inner suburbs, outer suburbs, small cities and villages, and rural areas Environmental · Number of major environmental issues to be resolved to implement existing commitments Economic · How does the transportation system support the economic health of the region? Source: CDTC Congestion Management Process, 2007. http://www.cdtcmpo.org/rtp2030/materials/cm-doc.pdf. tial effects of climate change in the region in a project's cost. An analysis of global warming costs is applied to major sys- Planning Time Index tem decisions, such as the evaluation of transportation Ratio of driving time on a "worse than average improvement plan (TIP) projects when applicable. CDTC delay day" (95th percentile) to a "free-flow day": also has gone beyond state requirements and produced GHG emissions specific to year, operating speed, and func- · PTI >1.0: trip would take longer time; tional class. This has allowed CDTC to mark progress · PTI =1.0: trip would take no extra time; and toward reaching regional environmental goals. · PTI 55 mph even on the "worst" day The Minnesota I-394 Integrated Corridor Manage- ment coalition is using measures to help reduce · Community compatibility. CDTC is concerned with how variations in travel time and improve reliability, transportation system and land use decisions affect the including a buffer index, maximum travel times New Visions goal of becoming a "Quality Region" with a experienced by travelers throughout the corridor, strong sense of place. Since the 1990s, CDTC has employed the range of travel times (and variability) experi- qualitative measures of community compatibility and qual- enced by travelers, and the percentage of "late" ity of life in its transportation planning process, assigning bus routes throughout the corridor. The coalition Levels A through F for community impact in addition to includes MnDOT, several municipal governments, quantitative analysis. and Metro Transit. The groups will develop a data · Greenhouse gas emissions. CDTC incorporates analysis hub used to connect multiple systems. of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions into its planning process through "full cost analysis," including the poten-
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12 Through CDTC's TIP, the agency funds the Capital Dis- Minnesota's Twin Cities region conducted an trict Transportation Management Center, run by the New extensive study of the effectiveness of the York State Police and New York State DOT (NYSDOT). The region's 430 ramp meters in 2000, including a Center is a source of data on traffic volumes, speed, and inci- shutdown of the system. The study revealed that dents, which are incorporated into the CMP. Values for many meters improve throughput by about 14%, yield of CDTC's performance monitoring measures are estimated 2.6 million hours of systemwide delay savings, using the regional travel model. With the excess delay mea- reduce the number of crashes by about 4 each surements methods, postprocessors will be used with STEP day, and save 1,160 tons of emissions. Ramp model data to generate values for excess delay, congested cor- metering results in a net benefit of $32 million to ridors, and bicycle and pedestrian accessibility (The Metro- $37 million per year to the region's traveling politan Congestion Management Process, May 2007). public. Providing rigorous analysis of operations CDTC coordinates with NYSDOT, New York State Depart- and ITS investments helps justify expenditures on ment of Environmental Conservation, and others to update these strategies. natural and cultural resource maps for environmental plan- ning and uses geographic information system (GIS) applica- tions, such as the regional bike-hike trail maps, bike and pedestrian data mapping and analysis, and crash data mapping Metadata Collection and Data Sharing and analysis for the Linkage studies. CDTC also works with CDRPC to process GIS data and incorporate parcel-level data Developing common databases and travel models across and high-resolution orthophotography for the entire region. jurisdictions or modes can be a significant challenge of multi- level agency coordination. The CDTC has addressed this issue on several fronts, including (1) using the Management Information System for Transportation (MIST) database that SANDAG uses data collected by California DOT records expressway speed and volume by lane every 15 min- (Caltrans) as part of the Freeway Performance utes2 and (2) monitoring travel speed and delay on arterial Monitoring System (PeMS) to measure freeway corridors using global positioning system (GPS) technology. speeds, delays, and reliability for the regional New databases and performance measures are being used to freeway system. PeMS transmits data from revise the critical congestion corridors articulated in the CMP automated detection devices every 30 seconds. documents, which contain all long-range performance meas- SANDAG uses these data to identify and priori- ures, including congestion measures. For example, nonrecur- tize transportation corridor improvements and ring delay indicators are being used to redefine the definition to monitor the regional comprehensive plan, of critical congestion. The Regional Operations Committee is rather than relying solely on travel times derived using these performance measures to help CDTC evaluate the from models. performance of its ITS, incident management systems, and operations systems. CDTC maintains significant transportation system per- formance data, including biennial data for nonstate federal- aid system facilities, quadrennial sample data for local roads, SACOG's multimodal, multijurisdictional "smart supplemental data for all Albany county and city roads, and corridor" initiative is a collaborative effort of data for transit system infrastructure age, facilities, ITS, sig- the County of Sacramento, the Regional Transit nal systems, sidewalk inventories, Thruway, and operations District, Caltrans, the State Highway Patrol, and and maintenance systems. CDTC's data collection includes American River Fire District. The Sacramento automatic traffic recorder counts; intersection traffic counts; Transportation Area Network (STARNET) will vehicle, truck, and pedestrian trip generation; vehicle classi- coordinate the interagency ITS network, includ- fication counts; bicycle and pedestrian shared-path volumes; ing providing web-based software that operators transit ridership and park-and-ride lot usage; various safety can access from any computer to see a map of the data, including crash location and frequency; and other data whole region showing the current status of all as necessary. CDTC maintains these data for access by state government, local municipalities, public and nonprofit agen- agencies' field devices, transit vehicles, and current cies and groups, consultants, and other interested parties. incidents and events, thus providing a common and comprehensive view of current conditions. 2 http://www.cdtcmpo.org/rtp2030/materials/wb-doc.pdf