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Guide for Data Management II-47 Many of these roles already are being performed by individuals in both the business divisions and Information Technology offices of each agency. The data governance model offers the opportunity to formalize the institutional arrangement between these two entities to facilitate the sharing of data and information throughout the organization. Step 3--Develop a Data Governance Handbook or Manual In addition to defining data governance roles and responsibilities, the agency should develop a data governance handbook or manual to provide a single source of information for all staff on the standards, policies, and procedures regarding the use of data and data programs within the organization. The data governance handbook or manual includes the following components: · Data governance charter, · Agency formal data management policy, · Data governance model diagram used for the agency, · Roles of data governance participants, and · Glossary of terms. Step 4--Develop a Data Catalog A data catalog can be developed to supplement the information provided in the Data Gover- nance Handbook or Manual. The data catalog includes the following components: · List of data programs in the agency; · List of business owners of the data program, with their contact information; · List of data stewards responsible for the data program, with their contact information; and · Instructions for accessing data standards and definitions used with each data program. Step 5--Develop a Business Terms Glossary Agencies should consider developing a business terms glossary, in addition to data dictionar- ies, in order to standardize the use of business terms throughout the agency. It is very important for developers of new data applications to use the appropriate data term related to the correct business term when developing applications to support business operations of the agency. Regardless of the model selected for data governance, and how the agency defines the roles and responsibilities for supporting governance, technology is available to support the data gov- ernance framework, by providing mechanisms for sharing and integration of data across the organization. The next section describes some of the available tools used to enhance data shar- ing and integration. 2.5 Technology for Data Management In addition to the institutional challenges associated with establishing a data management pro- gram for an agency, there also are technology challenges. These challenges impact the ability of the agency to share and integrate data between programs within the agency and to share and inte- grate data from external sources as well. Any data management program should include standards, policies, and procedures for data integration and sharing with internal and external stakeholders. Training for staff also is essen- tial for them to become successful in the use of the tools and procedures which support the data management program.
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II-48 Guide for Target-Setting and Data Management Some of the tools and procedures which can be used to support the data management pro- grams include the following: · Formal data sharing agreements can be used between internal and external offices in order to facilitate the process of sharing data and information. In order for this process to work smoothly, certain standards and communication protocols must be observed as part of the sharing process. These include the use of the following: Data definitions; Data file structures; Formats used for transmission of data; Frequency of transmission of data updates; Names of persons/offices responsible for transmitting data updates; Names of persons/offices responsible for receiving data updates; and Processes to secure the transmission of confidential data and information. · Business Intelligence (BI) tools also provide the means for allowing easy access to data systems and sharing of information among employees. These tools may include Knowledge Manage- ment systems, GIS systems, dashboards, scorecards, visualization tools, and others, described in more detail in Chapter 4. · Open architecture should be used in the design of application systems in order to provide for future enhancements or integration with other systems, with minimal cost to the agency. · Annual data files should be created to be used for reporting purposes, in order to ensure that consistent answers are provided to stakeholders and decision-makers throughout the year. · Enterprise data warehouses can be used to integrate and standardize the use of data and infor- mation within the agency. Standard reports can be exported to Data Marts from the data ware- house and used for analysis of business processes, including reviewing performance measures and targets associated with data programs. · Hardware such as engine, fuel, and brake condition monitoring systems, GPS, radio frequency identification (RFID) systems, and barcodes helps to gather data from field operations. Cor- poration X and ABC Company use much of this hardware. The next sections describe the processes and tools that are recommended for implementing and maintaining a data management plan for the agency. Use BI tools to address technology challenges associated with implementing Data Management programs. Data Sharing There are many methods and tools used for sharing of data and information. This section pro- vides guidance on the use of GIS systems, dashboards, and scorecards in a public sector agency. GIS GIS offer one of the best methods for integrating and sharing data. The integration process involves integrating different types of data in a geospatial data model comprised of several cata- logs and tables. Data is then linked to a linear referencing system on a map in order to locate point and linear attribute data. The advantages of a GIS system include the ability to update data in one part of the GIS model, in a particular table, without impacting other data layers in the system. The flexibility in GIS tools also offer a quick way to locate anomalies in data through visuali- zation of the data on a map or using 3-D GIS tools.
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Guide for Data Management II-49 All state transportation agencies are now required to use a GIS component, known as a shape- file, for submitting the state's transportation network data, as part of the annual Highway Per- formance Monitoring System (HPMS) 2010 report. State transportation agencies, which are lagging in the development of GIS systems to meet their business needs, should expedite this process in order to support internal data sharing needs, as well as to comply with Federal and/or state mandates. The process of improving data quality and accuracy of data delivered is greatly enhanced through the use of a GIS system and its associated tools. Dashboards and Scorecards Dashboards and scorecards offer another means for visual display of data in an easily accessi- ble and easy to use format. Some transportation agencies, such as Virginia DOT, have developed dashboards and score- cards for tracking performance measures which assess how well agency programs are perform- ing. The private sector uses dashboards as well; Corporation X has a well-defined one posted to its intranet. The following definitions explain the distinction between a dashboard and a scorecard. In management information systems, a dashboard is an executive information system user inter- face that (similar to an automobile's dashboard) is designed to be easy to read. For example, a product might obtain information from the local operating system in a com- puter, from one or more applications that may be running, and from one or more remote sites on the Web and present it as though it all came from the same source. Key performance indicators (KPIs) and balanced scorecards are some of the content appro- priate on business dashboards. One of the prominent systems for displaying dashboards is the use of COGNOSŪ. The balanced scorecard is one of the components that can be displayed on a dashboard. The scorecard reports on how well specific programs are performing based on targets and goals estab- lished which are linked to strategic business objectives. The purpose of the balanced scorecard is to do the following: · Align all members of an organization around common goals and strategies; · Link initiatives to the strategy, making prioritization easier; · Provide feedback to people on key issues--notably, areas where they can have an impact; and · Be an essential decision-making tool for everyone in the organization. The Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT) provides an excellent example of a dash- board, and their template is recommended by this Guide as a model of how to visually display and implement a dashboard for a transportation agency. Figure 2.5 illustrates the main VDOT dashboard, which can be used to navigate into more detailed areas of the dashboard, in order to view the performance reporting for projects and pro- grams in the agency. These include Engineering, Construction, Maintenance, Operations, Safety, Finance, and Environment. One of the main advantages to using this type of mechanism for sharing of data and infor- mation is that it is easy to use, and is available to anyone interested in the information, whether it is agency senior management, engineers and support staff, or the legislature and the general public. In addition to the use of dashboards, scorecards also present a ranking or score in how well pro- grams are performing, in meeting business needs of the agency. Table 2.2 illustrates a balanced
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II-50 Guide for Target-Setting and Data Management Figure 2.5. VDOT dashboard. Table 2.2. Hennepin county scorecard. Strategic Perspective Objective Measure Target Actual Comment Customer Achieve Number of high- 60 30 Need improvement, customer priority issues investigate process for Outcomes. resolved. resolving high-priority issues. Improve Percent of 80% 80% Right on Target. customer customers rating satisfaction. service very good or excellent. Finance Manage Percent increase/ 1.5 5% Reduced expenses due to expenses. decrease in annual budget cuts. budget. Maximize Percent increase/ 5% 13% Good progress. revenue. decrease revenue derived from grants. Internal Build effective Number of projects 25 10 Based on the projects to Process partnerships. involving one or date with one or more more partners. partners. Learning and Retain Employee retention 95% 75% Need to monitor. Growth knowledgeable rate. staff.
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Guide for Data Management II-51 scorecard used in Hennepin County, Minnesota, to monitor programs in the Public Works Department of the county. Both dashboards and scorecards are an effective means for sharing of data and information as illustrated in Figure 2.5 and Table 2.2. File Exchange Protocols Electronic data interchange (EDI) has become a common technology for file exchange. DIY Corporation shares data with its trading partners via the use of automated shipping notifications (ASNs). MNC uses EDI 210 transaction invoice records to interface with its suppliers of trans- portation services. Knowledge Management Transportation agencies should consider using a Knowledge Management (KM) system to strengthen and provide support for their data management programs. A knowledge manage- ment system is used to document a wide range of activities, including work processes, which may be solely known to certain individuals. This knowledge, which can be referred to as corporate knowledge is generally considered critical for maintaining business operations. In addition to corporate knowledge, other types of knowledge may be embedded as part of the routine processes and practices of the organization. It is important that this knowledge and these processes are doc- umented for use by future employees and decision-makers. The benefits of using KM systems include the following: · KM systems can be used to archive lessons learned which are invaluable when considering future investments in data programs; · KM systems identify and document the employee networks which are involved in the trans- fer of information within and between data programs; · KM systems offers flexibility in the transfer and sharing of data in many different formats, including text, PDF, and digital images; · The training required in using a KM system is minimal, and they also provide easy to use search and retrieval functions; and · The cost of implementing a KM system is affordable, and the estimated benefits derived can be used to justify the cost. Agencies also should consider implementing a KM office to oversee the knowledge manage- ment functions of the agency. Depending upon the size of the agency or offices involved, it may be more feasible to implement a section within an office that is responsible for knowledge man- agement activities at that division or office. Training The need for training of staff cannot be underestimated as an agency begins the process of implementing its data management and data governance programs. It is normal to expect that there may be some degree of uncertainty on the part of staff who do not understand how their responsibilities may change as a result of implementing new technology, standards, and proce- dures. Communication is the key to alleviating these concerns. It is extremely important that any agency considering the options recommended in this guide prepare the staff and the audience of stakeholders and users for what is expected during and after implementation of new policies, standards, and procedures. This can be accomplished through on-site meetings, webinars, and on-line/or printed brochures which include Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) explaining how