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I-15 CHAPTER 1 Introduction 1.1 Project Purpose Performance Targets: The role of targets in PBRA; The overall scope of NCHRP Project 8-70, "Target-Setting Factors influencing target-setting; and Methods and Data Management to Support Performance- Approaches to target-setting. Based Resource Allocation by Transportation Agencies" is Data Stewardship and Management: designed to assist public sector transportation agencies develop Elements of effective data stewardship and management; and improve performance management practices through the Institutional issues related to data stewardship and imple- following three key objectives: mentation of data governance; Data sharing, documentation, and reporting; To provide an overall description of performance-based Key technical considerations that guide setting data resource allocation (PBRA); requirements and data management system development; To provide a comprehensive description of the process and and methods by which targets are set for use in PBRA; and Summary of success factors related to effective data To provide a comprehensive description of the data, infor- management systems and institutional relationships to mation systems, and institutional arrangements needed to support PBRA. support PBRA decision-making. 1.3 Organization of the Report 1.2 Project Approach This report is organized in three volumes. Volume I is the The report proceeded through three phases. In Phase 1, the research report that focuses on the target-setting and data man- research team accomplished the following objectives: agement elements of the performance management frame- work. Volume II provides the actual guidance for target-setting Describe the purpose, desired outcomes, and essential and data management and is a freestanding document. Vol- elements of PBRA; ume III, which will be published on the TRB website as NCHRP Develop a list of public and private organizations reviewed Web-Only Document 154, is the case studies that provide the that use all or part of the performance management process, resource material upon which the study and guidance are based. including examples of how organizations apply each element but with a focus on target-setting; Volume I Identify the fundamental differences and similarities between objectives for a public sector agency and a private sector This volume provides findings and conclusions from all three organization; phases of NCHRP Project 8-70. It describes a Performance Develop the criteria that will be used for selecting case stud- Management Framework within which both state Departments ies and the form that case study documentation will take; and of Transportation (DOTs) and Metropolitan Planning Organi- Prepare the questionnaire that will be used in case studies. zations (MPOs) can develop and implement a PBRA decision process. It focuses on two elements of the framework--target- Building from this foundation, Phases 2 and 3 were con- setting and data management systems. ducted simultaneously, providing a detailed description of the Chapter 2 describes the Performance Management Frame- case studies selected in Phase 1 and focusing on the following: work which includes Goals and Objectives, Performance

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I-16 Table 1.1. NCHRP Project 8-70 case study organizations. Organization Organization Type City of Coral Springs, Florida Local Government Hennepin County Public Works Local Government U.S. Army ARDEC Federal Government GASB Statement 34 Federal Government U.S. DOT Federal Government Japan Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, and Transport International Atlanta Regional Commission MPO Metropolitan Transportation Commission MPO Orlando-Orange County Expressway Authority Toll Authority Port Authority of New York/New Jersey Port/Transit/Other Kansas State Department of Education Education ABC Logistics Private Corporation X Private Do-it-Yourself Retailer Private Multinational Conglomerate Private RCG Information Technology Private Florida DOT/State Government State DOT Minnesota DOT State DOT Ohio DOT State DOT Washington DOT/State Government State DOT Maryland DOT (State Highway Administration, Motor Vehicle Administration, Maryland Transportation Authority) State DOT/Transit/Other Measures, Targets, Resource Allocation, Reporting Results, 5. Track Progress Towards Targets, and and Data. It also describes several emerging trends in U.S. 6. Adjust Targets Over Time. transportation industry practice. Chapter 3 describes the role of targets in PBRA in both the Chapter 2 explains how transportation agencies can use data public and private sector. It outlines the factors that influence management and governance to strengthen existing perfor- target-setting and methods by which targets are actually set. mance measurement and target-setting programs. It applies Chapter 4 summarizes the ways data management systems the research conducted in Phase 3 into practical guidance for and organizational units within a DOT are used to ensure the transportation agencies. The Guide is organized under the use of accurate, timely, high-quality data for decision-making following headings: purposes. Two dimensions are involved in this process. The first focuses on the technical challenges associated with data 2.1 Establishing the Need for Data Management/Governance; systems and the second focuses on the institutional and orga- 2.2 Establishing Goals for Data Management; nizational challenges associated with data stewardship and 2.3 Assessing the Current State of Data Programs; data governance. 2.4 Establish Data Governance Programs; 2.5 Technology for Data Management; and Volume II 2.6 Linking Data to Planning, Performance Measures, and Target-Setting Processes. Volume II of this report provides guidance for state DOTs and MPOs on setting targets and establishing data systems to Volume III support PBRA. Chapter 1 provides a process that can be used by transporta- This volume, which is published on the TRB website as tion agencies for developing and evaluating performance mea- NCHRP Web-Only Document 154, provides a description of sure targets. The process consists of the following six steps: the case studies to which the guidance in Volume II is linked. The list of organizations interviewed and provided as case stud- 1. Establish a Performance Management Framework, ies in Volume III is shown in Table 1.1. The case studies serve 2. Evaluate the Factors Influencing Target-Setting, as specific examples which illustrate the use of performance 3. Select the Appropriate Approach for Target-Setting, targets and data support systems for resource allocation within 4. Establish Methods for Achieving Targets, the Performance Management Framework.