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II-52 Guide for Target-Setting and Data Management such initiatives as a data management and data governance program will be implemented and used at the agency. Bidding, Auctions, and Cost Management Solutions A variety of bidding, auctions, and cost management solutions help to manage disaggregated data in decentralized locations. Bidding and auction software helps to keep costs low when nego- tiating an agreement, and sometimes on the spot market as well. MNC Corporation uses this software when it is time to contract with its vendors. Invest in the staff through training opportunities. This will support the ROI for Data Management programs at the agency. 2.6 Linking Data to Planning, Performance Measures, and Target-Setting Processes The final step is to fully integrate an operational data management process with the agency performance measures and target-setting process. The success factors to achieving this final step are the following: Use a hybrid approach employing modeling and benchmarking to establish agency targets and performance measures. Do not use a one size fits all approach in establishing performance measures and targets. Use the correct metrics for making decisions. Focus on continuous improvement by revising/ adding new metrics as needed. Link the performance measures and targets for a program to budget allocations, improving participation by staff in supporting the performance measures and targets. The performance measure and target-setting process also can be used to motivate employees by linking their performance plans to objectives identified in specific performance measures and targets. Allow the DOT transportation planning staff routine access to other planning offices (regional, district, etc.) and technical resources available in the agency. This strongly enhances a performance-based management process. Reward business areas which consistently meet targets and goals. Consistent achievement in meeting targets is a powerful motivator for behavior--success breeds success. Use external data sources, such as environmental, historic, and other planning agencies for GIS data layers to improve the data used for the performance measurement process when funds are limited to collect this data using internal resources. Utilize software that is procured or developed internally to automate as much of the perfor- mance measurement process as possible. This will allow for more time devoted to the analy- sis of the performance results. Revise or stop using targets if performance data are not easily obtainable when a performance target is used. Programs which do not have a direct link between that program or project and performance should not be funded. Identify business units responsible for maintaining current metadata about each performance measure. This facilitates the analysis required for user requested data and information system changes and enhancements. Include objectives pertaining to resource allocation in the agency Business Plan. The current Business Plan at MDTA, for example, has three separate objectives related to resource alloca-

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Guide for Data Management II-53 tion. These include System Preservation, Implementing and Asset Management System, and Integrating MDTA's financial system with other systems. Use external data sharing agreements to obtain data for performance measures that the agency does not have. For example, MDTA collaborates with other agencies for several measures that it needs additional data for or does not have the necessary equipment to monitor itself. Establish performance targets through a streamlined process and revisit and revise (as needed) periodically. Incorporate customer satisfaction as a measure in setting performance targets. Utilize incentives to facilitate meeting performance objectives, including awarding bonuses based upon job performance and using quantitative objectives embedded in professional employees' annual objectives. Arrange performance measures in a hierarchical order, allowing an agency to translate strate- gic goals/objectives into operational goals/objectives for each department. The U.S. DOT fol- lows this approach among its various administrations (e.g., FHWA and FTA), allowing it to provide a performance budget that can be related to actual and planned accomplishments for each department. This same scenario would apply to a state DOT, with several divisions, dis- tricts, and/or independent offices. The performance in each area then becomes a key basis of resource allocation and budgeting. A step-by-step guide is not provided for this final step--the requirement approaches will vary significantly across agencies. This Guide is designed to provide helpful advice related to all aspects of data management to support performance measures. It is ultimately up to the trans- portation agency to take full advantage of the benefits that a fully functional data management process will offer for decision-making in a transportation environment. It is presumed that agencies are directly interested in linking their data programs to goals and objectives in order that the data programs will support decision-making, including resource allo- cation and project selection within the agency.