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I-62 that they are both being developed as part of a Data Business governance structure. If a simpler model meets the needs of Plan. Each agency understands the significance of the contri- the organization and it is just as effective as a more detailed butions of its data programs in supporting business operations model, then there is no need to overdo the data governance and is engaging in developing data business plans which will be framework. used to manage the current and future investments in their data programs. PANYNJ Challenges In the PANYNJ example, the responsibility for data gover- Alaska and Mn/DOT Challenges nance basically belongs to the IT department. It is important Many of the challenges from the Alaska and Mn/DOT exam- that the other line departments continue to work with the IT ples are shared by other organizations as they begin to develop department in the development and implementation of any and implement data governance. There is the need to gain new systems or redesign of existing systems. While this arrange- executive-level support for a data governance program. Some ment works well at PANYNJ, it may pose more of a challenge at agencies are more successful than others in gaining initial exec- other organizations. utive support. There also is the need to assess the current state Each of the previous examples illustrates the importance of of data programs, identify areas where gaps in data and infor- developing and implementing a data governance structure mation exist, and prioritize those needs as part of short-term that suits the needs and size of the organization. Ultimately, and long-term investment plans for data programs. Depending since the success of implementation of data governance relies on the size of the organization and the number of data systems on a strong partnership between the business offices and the to be assessed, this process can take several months to complete. IT office of the agency, it is advisable to engage the IT profes- Identifying Communities of Interest, which are basically the sionals as early as possible in developing the data governance users of the data systems, also is an involved but necessary model for the agency and a corresponding strategy for imple- process to ensure that any data programs developed actually mentation of the model. meet user needs. Ultimately, each DOT will need to design a data gover- 4.4 Data Sharing nance framework that best meets the business needs of their organization. One of the key factors in the success of data management programs is having well-defined procedures, methods, and tools for sharing data both internally and externally. Sharing Port Authority of New York/ data provides benefits not only in terms of reducing costs asso- New Jersey (PANYNJ) ciated with having multiple offices collect the same data but The Port Authority of New York/New Jersey (PANYNJ), also in terms of resources dedicated to maintaining duplicate while acknowledging that there is not an official data gover- data systems. Data sharing can reduce the risks of providing nance board or council overseeing the management of its data different responses to the same question when a single source programs, does have a governance process for considering and of data is used for reporting and decision-making in a specific approving potential enhancements to data systems which business area, such as data that are used for reporting per- support core business functions. Any requested changes to an formance measures for various programs. existing system from one line department must be considered In an effort to reduce the cost of data collection, many for potential impact to the other line departments. Any line organizations utilize formal data sharing agreements with exter- department wanting an application developed also must coor- nal partners and agencies. An example of this type of arrange- dinate this effort through the IT department. ment is demonstrated in the exchange of data between a DOT This example demonstrates the importance of having some and the local police department or division of motor vehicles. type of governing or coordinating function which oversees the The Maryland Motor Vehicle Administration (MVA), for development and maintenance of application systems within instance, uses Memorandums of Understanding (MOU) with an agency, whether or not the function resides with the IT all organizations that it shares data with. Some of the types department, as it has traditionally in the past, or with the estab- of data that the MVA obtains from external sources include lishment of an official data governance board or council. the following: National Driver Register data; PANYNJ Advantages Social Security data; The data governance example from PANYNJ demonstrates Commercial Drivers License data; and that it is not always necessary to have a complicated data Insurance data.

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I-63 The MVA also shares data with the public, including driv- sharing of travel time data with FDOT. FDOT routinely ing records, vehicle data, and title records. accesses the data and traffic monitoring sites used by OOCEA Three excellent examples of sharing data in the safety arena as part of its oversight responsibilities for the road network in come from Alaska. Alaska's Multi-Agency Justice Integration Florida. Consortium (MAJIC) is an active group whose members The City of Coral Springs, FL, also participates in cooper- include twenty key agencies including the Department of Law atives to share comparative and competitive data with others and Criminal Division, Association of Police Chiefs, Division in municipal government. They exchange data with a group of Motor Vehicles, Health and Social Services, Department of of 100 cities nationally to benchmark their performance com- Transportation, and Department of Public Safety. Each agency pared to other cities of similar size. Through this data sharing signed a Memorandum of Agreement. The mission is "to help agreement, they can design ways to improve performance agencies more efficiently share complete, accurate, timely and services provided by the City. information in order to enhance the performance of the crim- Internal access to data and data sharing is just as critical as inal justice system as a whole." They have established measures having external data sharing arrangements. Internal data are of data completeness, accuracy, and timeliness. The system often shared using a data warehouse by using data marts to used in Alaska for sharing electronic citation and collision provide data query, analysis and reporting capabilities. The data is called Traffic and Criminal Software System (TraCS). sharing of metadata to describe the purpose and use of the data TraCS is an automated data collection system that includes also helps to ensure that the correct data are used for making electronic ticket and collision forms, DWI forms, arrest and strategic decisions affecting the organization. incident forms, commercial vehicle inspection forms, and the Some organizations also support data sharing internally use of GPS devices and GIS maps. TraCS increases safety by with a Knowledge Management (KM) system, which is an significantly decreasing the amount of time it takes an officer electronic repository of all types of information such as the to write a traffic ticket or collect collision report information; following: greatly improving the accuracy of collision and ticket data that police collect; reducing the time officers spend on paper work, Data standards, policies and definitions for all business thus increasing their availability for patrol; and reducing dupli- application data, including metadata; cate data entry by police, DMV, and the courts, which saves Work processes used to support a business program using time and minimizes errors. The third example of successful a specific data system; sharing of safety data is the Alaska Traffic Records Coordinat- Lessons learned regarding use of IT tools, or other similar ing Committee (ATRCC) which was created to bring people data systems; together who are interested in reducing traffic injuries and Agency or department policy and standards regarding the deaths by improving the timeliness, accuracy and consistency use of data; of traffic crash data. The ATRCC meets at least once each Reports which monitor the performance of a given data month to discuss ongoing and upcoming safety data sharing program; and projects. PANYNJ also has formal data sharing agreements Data models for critical data systems. with local police, Federal, and other state government agen- cies. The Aviation Department of PANYNJ uses data from the FAA databases to integrate with their internal Aviation The use of a KM system allows an organization to do the division applications. following: Due to the need to have data on extent, performance, and condition of off-state system or local roads to meet Federal Leverage the expertise of people across the organization; reporting requirements, several agencies use data available Manage business environments and allow employees to from MPOs or cities and counties to integrate into the state obtain relevant insights and ideas appropriate to their work; road network. In the case of the MTC of the Bay Area in Cal- Facilitate and manage innovation and organizational ifornia, there is a requirement that local jurisdictions provide learning; updated pavement condition data to the MTC, or they will Make available increased knowledge content in the devel- not be eligible to receive Federal grant funding. Likewise, each opment and provision of products and services; state DOT must submit their annual public road mileage cer- Achieve shorter new product development cycles; tification to FHWA, as well as the Highway Performance Increase network connectivity between internal and exter- Monitoring System (HPMS) report, or they too risk losing nal individuals; and Federal highway funds. Manage intellectual capital and intellectual assets in the An excellent example of data sharing between a state DOT workforce (such as the expertise and know-how possessed and external entity comes from the OOCEA regarding the by key individuals).