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OCR for page 69
I-72 is strengthened through the use of well-organized and well- Planning for Data Management managed data programs. These programs are, likewise, stream- Start with a smaller achievable goal, when implementing lined and strengthened through the use of Business Intelligence data governance within an organization, and build on small tools which support the collection, processing, and use of the successes to address larger agency goals. most reliable and accurate data and information, on behalf Use a Data Business Plan to strategically manage data pro- of the organization. grams similar to other strategically managed programs These data management functions operate most effectively within the organization. within some type of data governance framework and with the Manage expectations of how data governance can help an appropriate BI tools. The continued availability of quality data organization by explaining the benefits of such models for is essential for allocating resources effectively, and for improv- supporting business operations. ing the speed at which improvements in business areas can be Use Business Models to help executives and managers bet- made. ter understand the relationship between target-setting and decision-making. 4.8 Summary of Success Identify champions from Business and IT sides of an organi- Factors and Obstacles zation to support key systems. Partnerships between both areas are critical to successfully managing data programs. Success Factors Several success factors related to effective data management Executing a Data Management Plan systems and institutional relationships to support PBRA were common to many of the case studies: use of data business plans, Implement a Data Governance Board or Council to address identification of a data champion, good coordination between issues related to development, implementation, and use IT and business functions, data governance applied from the of data programs which are critical to supporting business top down and clearly defined, achievable goals. Descriptions of functions. Clearly identify the roles/responsibilities of the staff respon- the success factors revealed from the case studies are provided in the following sections. sible for supporting critical data systems using a Data Gov- ernance Manual or other means. Collect the right data and the right amount of data, or to put Establishing the Need for Data it another way, don't be data rich but information poor. Pre- Management/Governance sent information to decision-makers in a clear and under- standable way. Demonstrate the ROI to the organization regarding the use Use BI tools (web-based applications, GIS, dashboards, etc.) of data management and data governance in order to gain to allow easy access to data systems and sharing of informa- buy-in from executives and decision-makers. Demon- tion among employees and decision-makers. strate with specific examples how the use of data gover- Communicate with stakeholders to sustain support for var- nance can meet the goals and targets most important to ious programs. Continue to provide outreach to all commu- executives. nities of interest to ensure that all needs are addressed. Formalize a Business Plan for the agency or department Develop a business terminology dictionary to align the use of which identifies how each employee's job is linked to the business terms commonly used throughout an organization. agency's mission and goals, thereby, clarifying the impor- This is particularly helpful to staff such as IT professionals tance of their role in the overall success of the department/ who are often responsible for developing applications to office. meet business needs. Design data systems so that they can be modified in the Assessing Current State of Data future without requiring a complete redevelopment of Management in Agency the software. Create an annual data file for each data program so that Perform a health assessment of data systems to determine consistent information is provided throughout the year. where the most critical deficiencies exist and to develop a Communicate the need for and share metadata with man- strategy for addressing those deficiencies. agers and policy-makers throughout the organization. Perform a risk assessment of existing data programs to Metadata is critical when needing to compare data side-by- highlight the importance of mission critical programs to side from different data systems. management and, thereby, gain continued support for Establish, update, and enforce polices and procedures to those programs. govern data management.

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I-73 Maintaining Data Management Use external data sources, such as environmental, historic, and other planning agencies for GIS data layers to improve Use Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) and Open Data- the data used for the performance measurement process base Connectivity (ODBC) in the design of new applica- when funds are limited to collect this data using internal tion systems to enable sharing of data and information resources. across systems. Utilize software that is procured or developed internally to Manage data as an asset in the organization, through policies automate as much of the performance measurement process governing the collection, maintenance, and use of data. as possible. This will allow for more time devoted to the Use data standards to: analysis of the performance results. Facilitate establishing targets and measures which meet Revise or stop using targets if performance data are not agency goals. easily obtainable when a performance target is used. Reduce the cost of multiple data collection efforts and Programs which do not have a direct link between that pro- maintenance of duplicate databases. Strive to collect data once, use it many times. gram or project and performance should not be funded. Identify business units responsible for maintaining current Facilitate consistent reporting of information. Use data sharing agreements to reduce costs associated metadata about each performance measure. This facilitates with data collection and maintenance of data systems. the analysis required for user requested data and informa- Invest in the staff by providing training in new technology tion system changes and enhancements. Include objectives pertaining to resource allocation in the and tools to gain their buy-in for support of data programs and data governance initiatives. Provide professional devel- agency Business Plan. The current Business Plan at the opment opportunities for staff. MDTA, for example, has three separate objectives related Invest in new technology training for staff. The ease of access to resource allocation. These include System Preservation, to data and the computer savvy ability of staff to utilize tech- Implementing and Asset Management System, and Inte- nology in creating their own queries and reports has enabled grating MDTA's financial system with other systems. them to more readily attain their goals. The relevance of this Use external data sharing agreements to obtain data for particular benefit should not be overlooked at the state DOT performance measures that the agency does not have. For level. This investment will ultimately produce beneficial example, MDTA collaborates with other agencies for sev- results for the agency. eral measures that it needs additional data for, or does not have the necessary equipment to monitor itself. Establish performance targets through a streamlined process Linking to Planning, Performance Measures, and revisit and revise (as needed) periodically. and Target Processes Incorporate customer satisfaction as a measure in setting Use a hybrid approach that employs modeling and bench- performance targets. marking to establish agency targets and performance Utilize incentives to facilitate meeting performance objec- measures. tives, including awarding bonuses based upon job per- Don't use a one-size-fits-all approach in establishing per- formance and using quantitative objectives embedded in formance measures and targets. Use the correct metrics for professional employees' annual objectives. making decisions. Focus on continuous improvement by Arrange performance measures in a hierarchical order, revising/adding new metrics as needed. allowing an agency to translate strategic goals/objectives Link the performance measures and targets for a program to into operational goals/objectives for each department. The budget allocations, improving participation by staff in sup- U.S. DOT follows this approach among its various admin- porting the performance measures and targets. The perfor- istrations (e.g., FHWA and FTA), allowing it to provide mance measure and target-setting process also can be used to a performance budget that can be related to actual and motivate employees by linking their performance plans to planned accomplishments for each department. This same objectives identified in specific performance measures and scenario would apply to a state DOT, with several divisions, targets. districts, and/or independent offices. The performance in Allow DOT transportation planning staff routine access to each area then becomes a key basis of resource allocation other planning offices (regional, district, etc.) and technical and budgeting. resources available in the agency. This strongly enhances a performance-based management process. Obstacles/Challenges Reward business areas which consistently meet targets and goals. Consistent achievement in meeting targets is a power- Several common obstacles also were identified through ful motivator for behavior: success breeds success. many of the case studies. These included the lack of use of BI