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11 Exhibit 6. Terms describing field data. Condition Rating: An integer value indicating presence and severity of defects in a bridge component. Condition State: An integer value indicating presence and severity of defects in a bridge element. Road Survey, Assurance Value, Quality Data, Field Data: Reports of presence and extent of debris graffiti or other upkeep deficiencies. monly used. Three terms--Operation, Activity and Event-- tion, and presents actions for maintenance of these elements. have a special role in the database developed in this project. A The maintenance manual does not provide a formal list of larger list of terms collected from DOT maintenance manuals maintenance actions, but maintenance actions are evident in is provided in Chapter 6. the narrative. AASHTO actions are presented for bridge deck, superstruc- ture, substructure, joints, drains, curbs, railings, approach pave- Maintenance Actions ment, approach embankment, and channel. The following are U.S. state DOTs perform similar maintenance work, but the six maintenance operations: there are differences in the level of detail used to record main- Clean, Clear; tenance accomplishments and to distinguish methods and Seal, Paint, Coat; products. Reset; Sets of maintenance actions are collected from public doc- Patch; uments including the following: Repair; and Manuals on maintenance policies and recommendations. Modify. These provide descriptive information on maintenance actions but might not contain formal numbering and The AASHTO presentation includes several actions for each measurement units for actions. operation, taking into account different types of bridge ele- Manuals for maintenance foremen and maintenance ments, different methods of maintenance, and different repair crews. These usually report formal procedures for recording products. The AASHTO actions include major operations. For and reporting maintenance activities. Reporting includes decks, actions such as installation of cathodic protection, place- crew size, crew activities, materials used, and equipment ment of concrete deck overlay, deck replacement, and asphaltic used. Often, measures of indirect activities such as traffic overlay with waterproofing membrane are included. For chan- control, travel time, and preparation at the maintenance nels, AASHTO actions include construction of revetments, yard, are included. placement of channel liners, and construction of check dams. Manuals for information systems. These list the numbers (IDs) for maintenance actions. At some DOTs, different Alabama DOT maintenance information systems are used by different department branches. The branch tracking costs might The Alabama DOT (11) identifies basic maintenance oper- employ a management system that reports maintenance ations as the following: operations, with each operation covering many related Cleaning, actions. The maintenance crews may use a more detailed Painting, list of actions. Minor Repairs, Major Repairs, Details of information from AASHTO and from state DOTs Moveable Span Maintenance, are reported in the following section. A summary of cate- Tunnel Maintenance, and gories of bridge maintenance work and maintenance actions Other Structure Maintenance. reported by AASHTO and state DOTs are provided in several tables in Appendix A. Alabama DOT uses two systems of numbering for main- tenance actions. The Alabama maintenance management system uses six numbers (645650) to identify operations. AASHTO Maintenance Manual Alabama maintenance crews report their accomplishments as The AASHTO maintenance manual (2) identifies various "B" codes--a set of 39 actions (11). The Alabama B codes rec- bridge elements, discusses their common modes of deteriora- ognize eleven components: Bridge, Movable Spans, Deck,

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12 Joints, Curbs/Rails, Superstructure, Substructure, Slopes/ Under Accessories are actions for drainage systems, catwalks, Shores, Culverts, Navigation Lights, and Tunnels. For most sidewalks, cathodic protection systems, de-icing systems, fill components, the actions include cleaning, coating, minor stabilization, walls, and slope paving. Maintenance actions repair and major repair. provide cleaning, clearing, painting, repairs, replacements, and modifications. California DOT Illinois DOT Bridge maintenance actions are reported in Chapter H of the California Maintenance Manual (22). California mainte- Illinois DOT lists 139 maintenance actions in the manual for nance actions include cleaning, coating, repair, rehabilitation, the Illinois Highway Information System, ISIS (16). The com- and replacement of bridge components. ponents are: Bridge, Decks, Drains, Joints, Railings, Superstruc- ture, Bearings, Substructure, Slopes, Approach Pavements, Colorado DOT Channels, and Miscellaneous. Under Miscellaneous are actions Colorado DOT employs two sets of maintenance actions. for lighting, and movable bridges. Maintenance actions include One set is coordinated with Colorado's implementation of the cleaning, clearing, painting, sealing, patching, repairs, replace- Pontis Bridge Management System (32). This set has 40 actions ments, modifications and removal of structures. with identifying numbers between 351 and 399. The set recog- Illinois actions are further defined by repair products. Paint- nizes eight bridge components (Bridge, Deck, Expansion Joints, ing is an example. ISIS has 26 codes identifying paint material Curbs/Rails, Superstructure, Bearings, Substructures, and and manner of application. Illinois records as many as four Approaches). The actions include cleaning, painting, reposi- paint codes per bridge to identify the various paints used. tioning, lubricating, tightening and repairing. Activity 398 is used to identify miscellaneous work such as repair of utilities. Maryland DOT Activity 399 is reserved for identifying deficiencies that require Maryland DOT (4) uses open-ended maintenance contracts engineering design to accomplish a repair. within DOT regions to perform actions such as deck patching, Separately, contract maintenance is organized as pay items. clearing drains, debris removal, slope protection, and under- Annually, Colorado DOT tabulates average costs for pay items deck timber planking. Separate contracts for bridge painting in maintenance contracts (39), as well as annual item data books include items for zone painting, overcoating, and complete (17). Contract actions include the full range of cleaning, paint- removal and repainting. ing, repairing and replacement actions. Michigan DOT Florida DOT Maintenance actions are collected from the Michigan DOT The Florida DOT maintenance management system (MMS) Bridge Capital Scheduled Maintenance Manual (CSM) (6). The includes 14 actions. The actions identify the components. The CSM manual lists maintenance first as operations and then as components are Bridge, Deck, Drains, Railings, Superstructure, specific actions within each operation. The operations are the Substructure, Channel, Electrical Systems, and Mechanical following: Systems. Actions for each component include both mainte- nance and repair. Superstructure Washing; Vegetation Control; Georgia DOT Drainage System Cleaning/Repair; Georgia DOT lists 13 actions in its Bridge Information Spot Painting; Management System (BIMS) (5). The components are Bridge, Joint Repair/Replacement; Decks, Curb/Rails, Joints, Superstructure, Substructure, Concrete Coating/Sealing; Approach Slab, and Culverts. Most actions provide for major Minor Concrete Patching and Repair; repair or replacement of components. One action, number Concrete Crack Sealing; 845, provides cleaning, routine maintenance and minor repair Approach Pavement Relief Joints; and for most components. Slope Paving Repair. Within each operation, specific actions differ in repair Idaho DOT method or material. The CSM manual addresses contract The Idaho maintenance manual (23) describes, in text, a set maintenance work and lists 51 maintenance pay items. Addi- of 52 actions. The actions address 10 components: Bridge, tional information, collected from Juntunen (18), indicates Decks, Joints, Bearings, Curb/Railing, Substructure, Approach that zone painting, full painting and epoxy overlays for decks Pavements, Channel, Culvert, Accessories, and Signs/Utilities. are also maintenance actions.

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13 Montana DOT ferent bridge elements (by type of joint, type of bearing, etc.), different construction materials, and different repair products. The Montana DOT Maintenance Manual (25) identifies Starting with eleven components and six maintenance opera- both state-force maintenance and contract maintenance. tions, the multiplicity of elements, materials, and products Maintenance and repair of structures are provided by a set of yield a list of 300+ actions in bridge maintenance. 13 actions that include cleaning, clearing (drains), debris A formal list of 126 maintenance actions appears in Ohio's removal, adjustment/tightening of parts, and repair of ele- TMS Foreman's Manual (37). These actions are used in report- ments. Contract maintenance is used for maintenance overlays, ing crew work and accomplishments. These actions address the crack sealing, and coatings. Montana DOT performs mainte- maintenance programs for bridges, roadways, and facilities. nance actions in response to visible deficiencies. Montana There are 43 actions related to bridges and culverts. These DOT employs a readable system for numbering of mainte- actions recognize the same components and basic actions nance actions (as opposed to a simple index). Each action is found in the on-line maintenance manual. identified by a four digit sequence composed of the following: A single digit for highway asset, Oklahoma DOT A single digit for purpose of the action, and Oklahoma DOT's (31) actions for bridge maintenance Two digits identifying a specific action. include painting, sealing, and repairs to decks, superstructure, Bridges are highway asset "4," and preventive maintenance and substructure. Repair methods include use of synthetic fiber is purpose "1." Actions for preventive maintenance of bridges wraps for reconstruction of concrete elements, and the rebuild- are numbered "41XX," where "XX" are from a list of the spe- ing of steel beams by cutting out deteriorated portions (ends of cific activities. beams, often) and welding in a matched section of steel. New Hampshire lists bridge maintenance actions for deck, beams, trusses, joints, and rails. Oregon DOT Oregon DOT employs two numbering systems for main- New York State DOT tenance actions (20). A set of nine actions is used in the MMS. New York State DOT (38) identifies cyclic maintenance These MMS actions recognize three structures (Culvert, Bridge, actions including deck washing, concrete sealing, bearing lubri- Movable Bridge) and four operations (Clean, Coat, Maintain, cation, bridge painting and deck overlays. Repairs, replace- Repair). A separate numbering system, called TEAMS, is used ments, and modifications to reduce vulnerability are also by DOT work crews to report production. There are 49 TEAMS maintenance, though not cyclic. New York associates some actions for bridges. The TEAMS actions recognize nine com- maintenance actions with specific construction materials or ponents (Movable Bridge, Deck, Drains, Walks/Rails/Curbs, element types. In addition, maintenance actions are appro- Superstructure, Substructure, Slope, Channel, Culvert); four priate only for structures within a stated range of condition construction materials (Concrete, Steel, Timber, Any); and a ratings. few bridge elements. North Carolina DOT Pennsylvania DOT North Carolina DOT's program for preventive maintenance Pennsylvania DOT lists bridge maintenance actions in its (10) includes bridge painting, joint repairs, and rehabilitation Procedures and Standards for Bridge Maintenance (34). The pub- of decks. lication lists procedures that include operations for cleaning, resetting, repairing, replacing, and modifying. Often, separate procedures are listed for similar actions applied to different Ohio DOT structure types or different construction materials. Ohio DOT's bridge maintenance actions are collected from Maintenance procedures recognize 12 components (Bridge, the on-line Bridge Maintenance Manual (29), the Transporta- Deck, Drains, Joints, Railings, Sidewalks/Curbs/Parapets, tion Management System (TMS) Foreman's Manual (37) Superstructure, Bearings, Substructure, Approach, Chan- and the Maintenance Administration Manual (19). nel, Culvert). Actions provide cleaning, repositioning, The on-line maintenance manual is an illustrated guide to tightening, coating, repairing, replacing, and modifying of maintenance and repair of bridges. The on-line manual recog- components. nizes eleven bridge components (Bridge, Deck, Drains, Joints, Actions are identified under two numbering systems: the Railings, Sidewalks, Superstructure, Substructure, Approach, Maintenance of Roadways Information System (MORIS) Channel, Culvert) and six operations (Clean, Coat, Reset, cost functions and the BMS activity numbers. MORIS lists Repair, Replace, Modify). The on-line manual recognizes dif- 31 actions for bridge maintenance. The MORIS numbers