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14 aggregate similar actions for different structure types or Summary and Maintenance Actions-- construction materials. There are 77 BMS activity numbers Existing Practice for bridge maintenance. The BMS activities recognize distinc- tions among elements, though a single BMS activity can corre- Maintenance operations at most DOTs include cleaning, spond to more than one procedure. coating, and repairs. Many DOTs also include operations for An overview of Pennsylvania's bridge preservation program replacement (usually of parts or portions of bridge compo- is provided by Rogers (36). nents), for minor modifications, as well as actions for lubrica- tion and other actions to reset devices on bridges. Maintenance actions at most DOTs are distinguished by construction mate- Texas DOT rial (repair steel versus repair concrete) or by type of work (patch Texas DOT's (3, 21, 26) maintenance actions recognize nine beam versus straighten beam). components (Bridge, Deck, Drains, Joints, Railings, Super- Most DOTs recognize bridge components as objects of structure, Substructure, Approaches, Channel). The actions maintenance actions, and most recognize more than the five provide for cleaning, coating, repair, and replacement of com- NBIS components. Some DOTs recognize separate mainte- ponents. Contract maintenance projects are organized as stan- nance actions for different types or forms of bridge component. dard pay items. These are element-level distinctions, though CoRe elements Texas DOT (8) developed standard repair details for the are not often used directly. guidance of maintenance personnel. The general goals of Numbering systems for maintenance actions exist in three preventive maintenance are to keep joints clean and sealed, forms: as maintenance operation items used by maintenance control drainage, clear debris from channels and maintain management systems, as action items for maintenance crews, bearings. and as pay items for contract maintenance. Some DOTs employ more than one numbering system. At most DOTs there is greater detail in recording crew Virginia activities and contract pay items, and greater aggregation in The Virginia Transportation Research Council (VTRC) maintenance operations tracked by management systems. identifies washing, sweeping, lubrication, joint sealing, over- Both are needed. Detail in crew activities and pay items allows lays, vegetation control, and zone painting among preventive simple computation of costs. Aggregation into maintenance maintenance actions (7). Repairs, element replacements and operations provides an overview of maintenance program modifications are also maintenance. Modifications include scope and costs. retrofit of fatigue-prone details and installation of cathodic protection systems. VTRC reports intervals and average costs Bridge Maintenance Data-- for some actions in preventive maintenance. Existing Practice Data in bridge maintenance programs identify and quantify: Washington State DOT actions taken, usages of resources, and quantities of accom- Washington State DOT's maintenance program recognizes plishment. Direct uses of data include cost computations and two classes of structures (24). Major structures are bridges on computation of resources needed for unit accomplishment of the state bridge list. Minor structures are drainage structures, maintenance actions. Reports are summaries of maintenance retaining walls, noise barriers, etc. Area maintenance crews data for a type of action, a DOT region, a time period, or other take actions to sweep decks, remove debris on components, organizing basis. Evaluations are comparisons of cost and ben- and clear drains. Other repair works on bridges are the respon- efits in various guises: cost for maintenance quantity, cost for sibility of the state Bridge Preservation Engineer. maintenance quality, comparative costs of repair products, Washington DOT provides detailed guidance for compli- comparative productivity of different equipment or crew size, ance with environmental regulations, especially for activities etc. Programmatic evaluations are needed for Governmental that can affect waters of the state. Programmatic permit guides Accounting Standards Board (GASB) reporting and life-cycle are provided for the following: cost computations. Maintenance management, finally, is the intelligent application of reports and evaluations to estimation · Bridge Maintenance Washing and Cleaning, of future needs and planning. · Bridge and Ferry Terminal Deck Overlay Replacement, Users of maintenance data include maintenance crews, · Bridge and Ferry Terminal Deck and Drain Cleaning, foremen, and regional superintendents, all working with · Bridge General Maintenance and Repair, and information on resource needs and production rates for · Bridge Paint-Prep Washing and Blasting. maintenance actions. DOT maintenance directors use reports
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15 of maintenance data to justify budget requests and report Maintenance by DOT Crews achievements of maintenance programs. Bridge engineers A primary source of data for work by DOT crews is the use maintenance data in the evaluation of products and crew card (also called day card, daily work report, daily time methods. card, etc.). Crew cards provide information on resources and accomplishments. Examples are found in the Ohio DOT's Maintenance Data Transportation Management System's Foreman's Manual (37) and the Alabama DOT's Field Operation's Manual (11) (Fig- Data are considered in two sets: data on usage of resources ure 1). Typical content of crew cards includes the following: and data on conditions of bridges. Each has two subsets. For resources, there are data on resources used in work by DOT · Work Administration crews, and there are data on pay items and quantities for con- Maintenance unit number and name tract maintenance. For conditions, there are data from bridge Job number or index to maintenance program plan inspections and data from surveys by road crews. Date(s) Crew Leader name or ID · Work performed Data on Resources Action Number and name Data on resources include all labor, equipment, and mate- Activity Numbers and names rial needed to accomplish a maintenance task (30). This con- · Exact location where the work was performed cept is evident in some state DOT policy statements (Table 2) Bridge ID and in the forms used for reporting crew maintenance work Optional: Location on a bridge identified by span, lane, and contract maintenance. beam line, etc. Table 2. Policies on maintenance costs. DOT Policy It is intended that all work effort, inclusive of layout, mobilization, final clean up, etc., that contributes directly to achieve the accomplishment of the item be charged to the Ohio item's Program Activity Code. (All work is part of the activity, and not a separate item or (37 ) cost. This will lead to different apparent costs when traffic control is provided for a single activity and when traffic control allows several activities to occur together.) It is imperative that ODOT capture the cost of using in-house resources to perform the work necessary to reach its goals. This information will be used in various ways including the following: · As a tool to assist managers in allocating resources based on projected workloads. · To compare costs of performing similar activities between districts, determine Ohio desired performance thresholds, and identify best practices of those business (19 ) areas that perform within the cost thresholds. · To accurately compare in-house costs to costs of outsourcing. · To calculate overhead rates for the Department, District, County and Garage. · To refine allocation methods relating to overhead rates as the process becomes more defined. · To monitor accountability and accuracy of the data in TMS through Quality Assurance Reviews. Provide data on work load and cost of maintenance activities to support budgeting and planning efforts; Provide a tool for analyzing maintenance activities so that production efficiency can be improved; Texas Help identify sections of highway which qualify for rehabilitation; (21) Document the work accomplished in order to support the department's budget requests to the legislature; and Provide data to compare costs of maintenance activities performed under contract with those performed by state forces.
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16 Figure 1. Work reporting form--Florida DOT. · Labor Usage · Material Usage Crew Size Material Item Number(s) Employee names or IDs Quantities of materials Number of hours worked by each employee on each · Work Accomplishment activity Work unit · Equipment Usage Number of units accomplished Equipment Type(s) and ID(s) Miles or hours used for each type of equipment Crew cards identify the maintenance yard, date of work, and Miles or hours used for each activity crew leader. The crew card may include a job or authorization
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17 number that places this work within the maintenance pro- · Pay items and quantities for a single maintenance action at gram plan. The work itself is identified by an action num- one bridge, ber or description. The location of work is shown, at least · Pay items and quantities for the same action at more than as bridge ID, and possibly as a span, lane, beam line, etc., one bridge, on the bridge. · Pay items and quantities for multiple maintenance actions Labor usage is recorded as employees and hours. Equip- at one bridge, and ment IDs and usage are shown. Material item numbers and · Pay items and quantities for a project that includes both material quantities are shown. Work accomplishment is maintenance and non-maintenance actions. shown. Labor usage for indirect activities on crew cards can include To record resources expended for each maintenance yard preparation, travel time, mobilization, traffic control, action at each bridge, it may be necessary to allocate pay work interruptions, and clean-up. Some DOTs use standard items among several actions and several bridges. Further codes to identify such activities. There are other indirect activ- allocation may be needed to identify resources for direct ities such as administration, inspections, equipment transfer and indirect activities. (between yards), and material stockpiling, that are not recorded on crew cards. Crew cards often record work order numbers. The bridge Condition Data ID, job authorization number, and maintenance action are Maintenance can improve conditions of bridges. Measures entered in advance by maintenance administrators. A crew of improvement can be used in evaluations of effectiveness of leader receives the card, executes the action, records usages of maintenance actions. For bridges, condition data are avail- labor, equipment and materials, and returns the completed able as CoRe element condition reports, as National Bridge card to maintenance administration. Inventory (NBI) condition ratings and as road survey values. Usually the information on a crew card can be tied to a spe- CoRe element condition reports list element quantities in cific bridge. However, there are exceptions when a crew per- condition states (1). For many elements, more than one con- forms multiple activities on a single bridge or the same activ- dition state may be reported. Condition states indicate defects. ity on multiple bridges. There is a related issue: all the work The response, naturally, is repair or replacement. CoRe condi- performed on a particular bridge might not be recorded on tion states are defined separately for separate elements. CoRe one daily work report if either multiple days or multiple crews language is specific, and is intended to foster simple, consistent are used. assignment of conditions states for observed conditions. A Some DOTs have implemented MMS that are driven by condition state may name more than one defect or visible work orders. In principle, a work order is issued for each defi- indicator of condition. The CoRe report of condition states ciency on a bridge, and when the work is completed, the work does not identify which defect is present. As a result, a condi- order is closed out. tion state can correspond to several maintenance actions that The Florida work reporting form (Figure 1) includes both might be needed, but the condition state does not indicate a field data and office data. Identification of crew members, specific maintenance action (Table 4). equipment, materials, and quantities are field data. Crew pay NBI condition ratings are more general (35). Three ratings, rates, equipment rates, and material unit costs are office data. one each for deck, superstructure and substructure share a The extended costs are office computations (Table 3). common set of definitions. The naming of multiple defects is absent. Both extremes of the NBI rating scale are infrequently Contract Maintenance used. Rating 0 for failed bridges is not frequently needed. Rat- ing 9 for new or near-new bridges is rarely used. NBI condi- Resources used in contract maintenance are reported as pay tion ratings indicate the need for a maintenance operation, items and quantities. A single pay item may combine labor, but not a specific maintenance action (Table 5). equipment, and material costs. Reports (billings) from con- Channels and culverts have separate definitions of NBI tracts may provide the following: condition ratings (see Tables 6 and 7). Table 3. Field data and office data. Field Data Office Data Office Computation Employee names, job titles, and hours Employee hourly rates Labor cost Equipment types, IDs, and usage Equipment rates Equipment cost Material types, items and quantities Material unit costs Material cost
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18 Table 4. Maintenance actions for CoRe condition states. Bridge Element Condition Concrete Deck Steel Beam Concrete Substructure State 1 Clean, Seal surface Clean Clean 2 Patch, Seal cracks, Seal surface Spot paint Patch, Seal cracks, Seal surface Spot paint, 3 Patch Patch Full paint Patch, Replace Portion, Full paint, Patch, Replace Portion, 4 Modify protection Repair, Modify protection Patch, Modify protection, Patch, Modify protection, 5 Repair, Replace Replace Entire Replace Entire Table 5. NBI and maintenance operations: Reports deck, superstructure, and substructure. Some DOTs develop Performance Standards (30) for main- Code Description Operation tenance actions. Each maintenance action has its own per- N Not applicable formance standard, and each performance standard indicates 9 Excellent condition Clean the resources needed to complete a unit accomplishment of 8 Very good condition Clean the action. Performance standards are useful in planning 7 Good condition Reset 6 Satisfactory condition Reset, Coat and scheduling maintenance work, and typically include the 5 Fair condition Repair, Coat following: 4 Poor condition Replace, Modify 3 Serious condition Modify, Emergency · Crew size/Labor requirements; 2 Critical condition Emergency · Kinds and number of equipment used; 1 "Imminent" failure condition · Suggested procedures; 0 Failed condition · Material quantities; · Average daily accomplishment; and · Authorizations, permitting and scheduling constraints. Condition information is also available from road surveys. These data are variously called quality survey data, level-of- Maintenance data provide the average values for required service data, assurance data, or simply field data. Road surveys labor, equipment and materials, and the average values of report debris, sand/grit, problem vegetation, graffiti, and other accomplishment using these resources. An example perfor- conditions that can contribute to deterioration. Maintenance mance standard is taken from Pennsylvania DOT is provided can be cleaning, clearing, spot painting, and resetting. in Figure 2. Table 6. NBI and maintenance operations: channel. Code Description Operation N Not applicable. 9 No noticeable or noteworthy deficiencies. 8 Banks are protected or well vegetated. 7 Bank protection is in need of minor repairs. Clear, Reset 6 Bank is beginning to slump. Clear, Reset 5 Bank protection is being eroded. Clear, Repair 4 Bank and embankment protection is severely undermined. Replace 3 Bank protection has failed. Replace, Modify 2 The bridge is near a state of collapse. Modify, Emergency 1 Bridge closed because of channel failure. 0 Bridge closed because of channel failure.