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20 for all actions in the current maintenance program. Needs in There are several commercial HMMS available to DOTs. each category are also broken down by DOT region, so that There is not much uniformity among commercial systems. The appropriate distribution of resources can be achieved. number of activities defined in these systems range from roughly 30 to 80 activities. DOTs with HMMS distinguish Scheduling. MMS schedules individual maintenance between activities for planning purposes and for recording actions based on needs, on available crews and equipment, work accomplishments. HMMS originally provided for record- and (often) with consideration of impacts on network traffic ing short lists of maintenance activities, but evolved to record operations. activities plus work methods, in effect multiplying the num- ber of distinct maintenance actions that HMMS could track. Monitoring and Evaluation. MMS tracks work accom- There are a number of vendors of commercial off-the-shelf plishment, resources used, productivity, costs, and improve- software for management of plant maintenance. These systems ments to conditions. are intended for maintenance of equipment, vehicles, and facil- ities, but can be applied to bridges. One drawback to use in Maintenance Support and Administration. MMS assists bridge maintenance is the lack of location referencing capabil- in coordination of maintenance events with regulatory agen- ities. Plant maintenance systems are adapted to ID numbers. cies, public-interest programs, safety programs and resource Bridge maintenance requires both bridge ID and bridge linear management. MMS embodies, as a set of logical rules, knowl- referencing data. However, toll authorities have found the soft- edge of the restrictions imposed by statute or regulation, and ware practical because of the need to maintain their toll facili- of stakeholders in activities that are in line with or in support ties, and their bridge networks are much smaller and funda- of the maintenance program. Maintenance data contribute to mentally different than state highway networks. Collectively, the operation of all six modules. Some of these contributions the major vendors have an installed base of tens of thousands are indicated in Table 8. of plant maintenance management systems in various com- mercial, government and quasi-government entities including toll authorities. Commercial Maintenance Management Systems Summary on Bridge Maintenance For reasons of financial accountability, DOTs employ some Programs in the United States means for recording the dates, locations, maintenance activ- ities, resource utilization, and accomplishment for work per- U.S. DOTs have programs for maintenance of bridges that formed by DOT crews. These data are normally entered into are similar in the physical activities performed, but different highway maintenance management systems (HMMS). in the identification and reporting of actions. Each DOT rec- Table 8. MMS and contributing maintenance data. MMS Module Maintenance Actions Condition Data Resource Data Condition of element Catalog of feasible actions Planning shows need for for element and condition maintenance Condition report may Resources requirements Selection of a feasible indicate quantity of Programming estimated from action element needing performance standard maintenance Performance standard Resource indicates materials management needs Standard action may Performance standard Scheduling include a recommendation indicates crew type, and for scheduling equipment type New condition data, after Monitoring and Actual usages of maintenance, indicates Evaluation resources are reported level of improvement Reports of usage of Support & Standard action may Network conditions resources contribute to Administration require permits budgeting process.

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21 ognizes a boundary between actions that are maintenance and Current practices in bridge maintenance programs have actions that are (re)construction, but different DOTs do not implications for a national database system for bridge mainte- recognize quite the same boundary. Each DOT identifies the nance data. A national system must resolve the different num- resource amounts and resource costs used in bridge mainte- bering systems for maintenance actions used by DOTs. A nance, but various DOTs employ differing identifications and national system must accommodate all kinds of work that DOTs measurement bases for resources. Condition data for bridge identify as bridge maintenance. A national system must accept components (NBI ratings) and bridge elements (CoRe condi- the different approaches to identification and measurement of tion states) are similar among U.S. DOTs. Some DOTs define resources used by DOTs. A national system must accommo- additional bridge elements. date additional condition data reported by some DOTs.