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76 CHAPTER 6 Glossary of Terms in Highway Bridge Maintenance Activity Guideline: An activity guideline defines each activity Asset: An asset is a physical item of roadway infrastructure and identifies the activity's specific "unit of measure." The that has value. Assets are sometimes referred to as road- guideline also outlines the recommended process for per- way "furniture" or "features." An asset may be a single forming the activity along with instructions for reporting item, such as a sign, or a linear item such as a road or its location. Other helpful instructions for reporting may guardrail section. An asset may also be a spatial item such also be included in the guideline (Ohio) (19). as a rest area or mowable acreage (AASHTO) (13). Activity Numbers: Code numbers given to an activity. The Atomic Data: Data items containing the lowest level of detail. last two digits in the 4 digit program activity number For example, in a daily maintenance activity report, the (Ohio) (37). individual equipment used would be atomic data, while Annual Work Program (AWP): An annual work program rollups like summary totals from equipment rental invoices is an estimate and a goal for the quantity of work to be are aggregate data (see also aggregate data) (FHWA) (9). completed for each maintenance activity in the program Bank full width: Synonymous with floodplain and means the year. The AWP drives both budget and resource needs flat landscape feature immediately adjacent to most stream (AASHTO) (13). and river channels that begins at the edge of the bank full Anti-Icing: The early application of temperature suppressant channel and receives over bank flow during most years chemicals to prevent snow and ice accumulation or pre- (Montana) (25). vent a hard bond of snow and ice to the pavement. This Berm: The paved or aggregate area just beyond the edgeline is preventative in nature (Montana) (25). stripes (Ohio) (37). Approved Annual Budget: The approved estimated cost to per- Best Management Practice (BMP): Physical, structural, and/or form the maintenance work load for the highway system managerial practices that, when used singly or in combina- (Ohio) (37). tion, reduce water quality and aquatic habitat impacts of Appurtenances: Anything that pertains. Referencing road- maintenance activities (Montana) (25). way systems, appurtenances refer to all things associated Betterment: Replacement of bridge rails and floors to a higher with the roadway (Ohio) (19). standard. Widening of bridges 100 ft or less between abut- Asset Inventory: An asset inventory is a physical count of ments. Extensions or new installation of walls involving assets. The count may be by coordinates, milepoints, 80 cubic yards or less of structural material. Replacement road section, geographical area, road network, mainte- of walls to higher standard (AASHTO) (2). nance section, or other convenient method of sorting Betterment work is work that adds a new roadway and reporting the amount of assets in the road system feature, expands or improves an existing roadway feature, (AASHTO) (13). or improves the existing roadway section (e.g., removing Asset Management System (AMS): An AMS is a business a bank to improve sight distance) (Ohio) (19, 37). method in which organizational structure, business Bridge Inventory and Appraisal Code Sheets: Federal legis- processes, and technologies are integrated as a total lation has mandatory requirements that particular speci- approach for maintaining infrastructure. Effectively fied data be collected and maintained for all bridges on the implemented, AMS seeks to minimize the overall life- public highway and street systems in Ohio. The BR-87 and cycle cost of assets and maximize maintenance levels of BR-87A forms provide for a collection of bridge data to service (AASHTO) (13). be used for producing various analytical and statistical
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77 reports, which aid in the design, planning, programming, standard. Complete re-construction or additions to bridges and financing of bridge maintenance and construction. of more than 10 span. Widening of bridges over 100 long. The Office of Structural Engineering publishes a Bridge Extensions or new installations of walls involving over Inventory and Appraisal Guide. The Bridge Inventory and 80 cubic yards of structural material (AASHTO) (2). Appraisal Coding Guide was prepared through the joint Construction and Materials Specifications (Spec Book): Con- efforts of the Office of Structural Engineering and Office of tains detailed provisions, which, together with the Plans Application Services to establish policies and procedures and the Proposal, constitute the Contract for the perfor- for the creation and maintenance of a Bridge Management mance of required work. It is the official legal and technical System (Ohio) (19). document by which ODOT bids and constructs highway Bridge Management System (BMS): BMS provides a collection projects (Ohio) (19). of bridge data to be used for producing various analytical Construction Inspection Manual of Procedures (MOP): and statistical reports, which aid in the design, planning, This manual provides construction personnel with infor- programming, and financing of bridge maintenance and mation to perform accurate inspections of the various construction in Ohio (Ohio) (23). department construction work items (Ohio) (19). Bridge: This term is used in a name when the function of the Construction Management System (CMS): CMS is construc- structure is to carry traffic over a watercourse such as a bay, tion management system software created for ODOT's canyon, river, creek, wash, or slough (California) (22). use statewide to track and monitor construction projects All structures having an opening measured along the (Ohio) (19). center of the roadway of more than 6.1 m (20 feet) between Continuous Location: A designation used to record certain abutments or spring lines of arches or extreme ends of roadway inventory features that occur continuously over openings for multiple boxes. It may also include multiple a considerable length of highway, such as surface type, pipes where the distance between the openings is less than slope maintenance, etc. (Ohio) (37). half the smallest pipe's opening (Idaho) (23). County Work Plan (CWP): The District, County, and Road- Budget Analysis: Budget analysis is a business process used to way Services County Work Plans identify the current con- determine budget needs. In modern maintenance manage- ditions, 3 Year District Maintenance OPI Goals, Preventive ment practice, budget analysis allows decision makers to tie Maintenance Goals, available resources, level of effort, pro- budget needs to outcomes and LOS. What if and impact jected conditions, costs, and narrative summary for the scenarios can be analyzed to determine expected outcomes highway system in each District and respective Counties. from various funding levels (AASHTO) (13). Each CWP consists of an Available Resources, Mainte- Channel Migration Zone (CMZ): CMZ is synonymous with nance OPI, Pavement Engineering, and Preventive Main- a 100-year floodplain and means the lateral extent of tenance Category (Ohio) (19). likely movement along a stream reach with evidence of active steam channel movement over the past 100 years County Work Plan Summary: Annually, a complete CWP (Montana) (25). report will be published to summarize the State condi- Chip Seal: A chip seal consists of liquid asphalt covered with tions, goals, resources proposed, and projected conditions an approved cover coat material (Idaho) (23). (Ohio) (19). Clear Zone: A roadside area, cleared of obstructions, designed Crack sealing: Crack sealing of flexible pavements is a rou- to allow for vehicular recovery. Design area is determined tine maintenance activity that basically involves cleaning by traffic speed, actual daily traffic, and horizontal curva- and filling cracks with a liquid sealant (Idaho) (23). ture, and embankment slope (1996 AASHTO Roadside Crew Hours: The time in hours spent by a crew as a group Design Guide) (Montana) (25). working on an activity (Ohio) (37). Condition Assessment: Condition assessment is a physical Critical Areas: The following areas and ecosystem: (a) Wet- inspection and rating of roadway assets to determine the lands, (b) areas with a critical recharging effect on aquifers condition of individual assets, roadway sections, or over- used for potable water, (c) fish and wildlife habitat conser- all road networks (AASHTO) (13). vation areas, (d) frequently flooded areas, and (e) geologi- Consent Ordinance: The Director of Transportation needs cally hazardous areas (Montana) (25). to obtain a consent ordinance from villages to maintain Culverts: Metal pipe, timber, concrete culverts and other struc- the traveled portion of the roadway system within village tures with less than 3 m (10 feet) of clear span measured limits, provide centerline and lane line markings, install normal to center line of feature intersected (Idaho) (25). and maintain regulatory and warning signs, and remove Customer Input: Customer input is documented data and snow and ice (Ohio) (19). information is systematically obtained from customers Construction and Reconstruction: On structures having a related to opinions, needs, expectations, and perceptions span of 20 or less, complete reconstruction to a higher (AASHTO) (13).
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78 Customer Service: Customer service is a systematic business Equipment Management System (EMS): A computerized process for responding to transportation customer needs equipment and materials inventory information system. and expectations. Customer service involves obtaining EMS reports an audit trail comparing stock used with work customer input on performance targets and budgets, effec- orders. This audit report ensures that all stock items are tively handling customer requests, and getting feedback charged out to the correct piece of equipment (Ohio) (19). from customers on performance (AASHTO) (13). Equivalent Single Axle Loads (ESALs): Bridges and other Customer: Customers are any individuals or groups who are structures on the state highway system are rated for capac- served by or have a stake in the transportation system. ity, usually gross and axle weight. Bridges determined to They include the traveling public, taxpayer, public entity, be unsafe for legal weight vehicles have signs posted that public official, or internal entities. In modern mainte- specify reduced weight limits. Stronger structures have nance management practices, customer input is the driv- ratings of 100 percent (maximum legal weight) and up to ing force for setting performance targets and measuring 150 percent (maximum permittable weight). Any single results (AASHTO) (13). axle with a spacing of less than 16 feet between an adjacent Danger Tree: Trees or snags, on or near the highway, that are axle is 20,000 pounds (Ohio) (19). found to be weakened, unsound, undermined, leaning, Exception Report: An output report that shows information or exposed so they may fall across the highway. When which deviates greatly from standards (Ohio) (37). permission to remove the trees cannot be obtained, it is Facility: The building and grounds owned and operated by necessary to trim and do whatever else is reasonable to ODOT (Ohio) (37). alleviate the hazard (Montana) (25). Features Inventory: A list of the maintainable physical fea- De-Icing: The application of temperature suppressant chem- tures of the highway system. For example, lane miles of icals to remove accumulated snow and ice. This is consid- pavement, lengths of ditches, fences, and guardrail and ered reactive in nature and requires more chemicals locations of culverts. The inventory also includes features (Montana) (25). that influence the work load such as ADT (Average Daily Ditch: A drainage feature that is a constructed conveyance Traffic), climate, terrain, highway types, and classifica- system that collects, conveys, channels, holds, inhibits, or tions (Ohio) (37). diverts the movement of storm water or ground water from Federal Highway Administration (FHWA): FHWA is a part the MDT facility and adjacent properties. It is not a chan- of the U.S. Department of Transportation and is head- nelized stream, or fish bearing stream (Montana) (25). quartered in Washington, D.C., with field offices across Emergency: An emergency consists of circumstances creating the United States (Ohio) (19). a substantial risk of loss, damage, interruption of services Forbs: A general name for any herbaceous plant, other than or threat to public health or safety that could not have been grass, which is found in grasslands or woodlands (Mon- reasonably foreseen. An emergency is a situation involving tana) (25). an act of God, disasters, casualties, national defense, or Foreman's Manual: ODOT has compiled the TMS Foreman's security measures, etc., and includes response activities Manual to aid the county and district work forces in effec- that must be taken to prevent the imminent loss of human tively maintaining the ODOT highway system and in life or property (Montana) (25). accurately reporting and tracking work effort and cost Emergency Disaster Management: activities required to alle- accounting data (Ohio) (19). viate an emergency condition. Work activities are the same Geographic Information System (GIS). This is a spatial ref- or similar to routine maintenance activities except that erencing system for integrating data by location using they are greater in magnitude and scope depending on geo-coordinate referencing (AASHTO) (13). the nature and intensity of the emergency. This work is Global Positioning System (GPS): A satellite-enabled tech- not budgeted and/or scheduled and creates an immediate nology for location referencing by x, y, and z coordinates threat to life, the public, property, or environmental degra- (AASHTO) (16). dation. This includes work accomplished on a damaged Grade Separation: A structure carrying traffic of one highway highway facility/element that has substantially retained the over another highway (Idaho) (23). intended functionality of its original design. It does not Highway Bridge Replacement Rehabilitation Program include construction of new roadway elements. Exam- (HBRRP): Federal Highway Act which funds, regulates, ples include: erection, dismantling, and maintenance of and prioritizes the improvement of the nation's bridges. a Bailey bridge; establishment of detours and tempo- Only those bridges classified as "structurally deficient or rary minor structures; emergency traffic control; any functionally obsolete" and having a sufficiency rating of work needed to protect and maintain the area affected by 80.0 or less are eligible for funding under this program the emergency (Montana) (25). (Illinois) (16).
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79 Highway Maintenance Program: A highway maintenance pro- the ISIS database. The Illinois Structure Information Sys- gram involves the systematic process of planning, imple- tem will accommodate the entry of an unlimited number menting, measuring, and making improvements with high- of routes per structure. Individual data items located on way maintenance. Decisions are based on the cost-effective Key Route computer screens are therefore recorded indi- use of limited resources to improve efficiency and protect vidually for each route (Illinois) (16). the investment in the State's existing transportation infra- Lane Mile Agreements: An agreement between ODOT and a structure (Ohio) (19). municipality designed to accomplish agency goals. Refer to History: Any data base item where all past values for that item all parts of §5521 of the Ohio Revised Code for authority are stored on the data base. Inspection items are examples and requirements for municipal and county cooperation of items where history is retained by inspection date. Aver- (Ohio) (19). age Daily Traffic (Item 29) is an example of an item where Longitudinal Striping: The painting of centerlines, edge lines, history is not retained, since past changes in traffic volumes or roadway lane lines that extend lengthwise on the road- are not retained in the computer system (Illinois) (16). way to provide adequate traffic control (Ohio) (19). Illinois Geographic Information System (IGIS): The com- Maintenance and Repair Form 502, the Daily Work Report: puter system that allows a graphical display of various ele- The 502 form is ODOT's source document for recording ments contained in IHIS (Illinois) (16). details of work activities. The crew leader completes the Illinois Highway Information System (IHIS): The master information on the Daily Work Report by verifying the database resulting from the combining of the individual exact location where the work was performed, the num- IRIS, IRRIS, ISIS, and IGIS data bases (Illinois) (16). ber of hours worked by each employee on each activity, Illinois Railroad Information System (IRRIS): The computer the miles or hours of usage for each piece of equipment system and database which accommodates the entry and on each activity, the quantity and type of material used on retrieval of pertinent information in relation to the public each activity, and the number of production units accom- at grade and grade separation rail crossings (Illinois) (16). plished on each activity that day (Ohio) (19). Illinois Roadway Information System (IRIS): The computer Maintenance: The upkeep of a highway (which includes all system and database which accommodates the entry and of its elements) in or as close as possible to its original retrieval of pertinent information in relation to all high- constructed condition, or its subsequently improved con- ways open to public travel (Illinois) (16). dition (Ohio) (19). Illinois Structure Information System (ISIS): The com- Maintenance Activity: Any work task related to operations puter system and database which accommodates the and maintenance. A maintenance activity may be any entry and retrieval of inventory and inspection data for physical work performed on the transportation assets, or all structures open to public travel. The state system bridge may be an administrative, support, engineering, or cus- inspections are transferred overnight from the MMIS data tomer service activity. Maintenance activities are usually base (Illinois) (16). assigned an activity code for work reporting and tracking Inventory Milepost: A specific location, identified by the mile- (AASHTO) (13). post system, on the highway system (Ohio) (37). A maintenance activity is a small group of associated Inventory Route or Key Route: Technically, the two terms tasks and subtasks necessary to correct a highway mainte- pertain to the same section of highway. "Inventory nance problem, to accomplish a betterment, or to produce Route" (also called Marked or Unmarked Route) refers to a material. An activity can also describe an indirect related the highway identified in Items 5A-5E of the NBI record, task such as yard work, supervision, etc. (Ohio) (19). and whose highway designation terminology can be most Maintenance Activity Guideline: A maintenance activity familiar to the traveling public. "Key Route" is defined in guideline is a general guide specifying how maintenance Items 1A-1H and is used by IDOT to uniquely identify activities should be performed to achieve maximum pro- roadway that typically can cross county and township ductivity and work quality. The guideline specifies resource borders, sometimes starting at one end of the state and needs, production planning rates, scheduling criteria, and continuing to the opposite end. Key route may be viewed high-level work methods (AASHTO) (13). as the most basic unit of identification for the Illinois high- Maintenance Administration Manual: The Maintenance way system. Example: For an identified section of high- Administration Manual is a compilation of procedures, way, there may be many Inventory Route designations protocol, and directives regarding ODOT's maintenance assigned to the section, but only one key route designa- activities. The Office of Maintenance Administration has tion. Key Route data is recorded for the highway(s) on and gathered, reviewed, and updated the information and under the structure. Inventory Route Data is computer produced the manual as a reference tool for the district generated from the Key Route information and stored in and county work forces. The manual contains years of
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80 experience, research, and education and is intended to be conducting QARs is vested in Central Office Divisions and a living document that will be updated as technology and Offices (Ohio) (19). research evolve (Ohio) (19). Maintenance Quality Survey (MQS): The purpose of the Maintenance Index: The Maintenance Index is part of the maintenance quality survey is to develop numerical data overall Organizational Performance Index, which is the for rating the performance of the highway maintenance scoring system index by which maintenance efforts and sys- activity. The procedures vary for the different highway tem conditions are compared to ODOT goals (Ohio) (19). elements. This is necessary because certain conditions Maintenance Level of Service (LOS): Maintenance levels of occur with a greater frequency than others (Ohio) (19). service measure the condition of individual assets as Major Defects: Some defects are considered major because well as the overall condition of the roadway. LOS mea- they involve individual members that affect structural sta- sures are generally specified in customer service terms bility of an entire span thus requiring underpinning of the related to safety, preservation, convenience, aesthetics, span or supplementing of the member before removal. comfort, and mobility. Some states also measure LOS Other defects are included in this group because the mea- in terms of environmental impacts or legislative man- sures needed to correct defects are numerous and varied dates (AASHTO) (13). requiring structural or other technical advice or the defect Maintenance Management (MM): The actions associated may cause equipment failure (California) (22). with organizing, administering, and supervising highway Major Maintenance: Bridge rehabilitation, reconstruction, maintenance activities, customer services, and infrastruc- or replacement. Replacement of structures only as a result ture preservation (AASHTO) (13). of major disaster when no other funds or programs are Maintenance Management Information System (MMIS): available (Texas) (21). The computer system and database that accommodate Microsurfacing: Microsurfacing is a polymer-modified cold the entry of state bridge inspections. This system also paving slurry seal system (Idaho) (28). contains numerous other state-maintained data informa- Milepost Marker: A sign identifying a specific location on the highway system (Ohio) (44). tion and functions (Illinois) (16). Minor Defects: Minor defects are those which can be corrected Maintenance Management System (MMS): Similar to an asset with little or no risk of structure collapse or rendering of management system, a modern MMS integrates organiza- damage to adjacent or related members while making tion structure, business processes, and technology to pro- repairs or replacements (California) (22). vide a systematic approach for planning and executing an MQS Manual: The maintenance quality survey manual efficient customer-oriented and performance-based main- describes highway conditions, which are referred to as tenance program (AASHTO) (13). "Recordable Conditions." The recordable conditions A specialized budget and accounting system for man- are not necessarily maintenance deficiencies. The entire agers. The MMS is used for work planning, scheduling, highway system will be surveyed over a 12-month (four performance evaluation, budgeting, and expenditure con- quarters) time frame (Ohio) (19). trol of maintenance activities (Montana) (25). MQS Teams: Two (two person) Central Office teams survey Maintenance Program Activity Code: The Transportation approximately one fourth of each County in the State every Management System uses program activity codes (PGAC) 3 months for recordable maintenance conditions and defi- to group associated tasks and sub-tasks necessary to main- ciencies. The entire County (every centerline mile) is sur- tain our highway system. Examples of these PGAC codes veyed once over a 12-month time frame (Ohio) (19). are pothole patching, snow and ice control, pavement Multi-Year Work Plan: Ellis, the ODOT's Web-based project markings, and facility maintenance (Ohio) (19). management system, contains the contracted portion of Maintenance Quality Assessment: Maintenance quality assess- ODOT's long-term plan for maintaining ODOT's assets. ment is a process of physically inspecting and rating the The District Multi-Year Work Plans are a subset of this condition of the roadway assets and maintenance services. long-term plan. The goal of the District Multi-Year Work The quality assessment employs the same measures used to Plan is to develop a fiscally constrained work program that set performance targets. The data from the maintenance assures safe, reliable, efficient, and accessible, travel con- quality assessment is used to assess outcomes, actual per- ditions, while maintaining bridge and pavement assets at formance, and maintenance LOS (AASHTO) (13). agreed upon performance levels (Ohio) (19). Maintenance Quality Assurance Review: It is ODOT's policy National Bridge Inspection Program (NBIP): The pro- to use a Quality Assurance Review (QAR) process to ensure gram developed by the Federal Highway Administration organizational units within ODOT adhere to all laws, regu- (FHWA) as a result of the Federal-Aid Highway Act of lations, policies, and standard operating procedures in car- 1968, which requires the inventory and inspection of the rying out ODOT's day-to-day business. Responsibility for nation's bridges (Illinois) (16).
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81 National Bridge Inspection Standards (NBIS): The federal way capacity improvements, expansion, or major rehabil- regulations establishing requirements for inspection pro- itation (AASHTO) (13). cedures, frequency of inspections, qualification of person- Organization Unit: An organization unit is a defined unit nel, inspection reports, and preparation and maintenance within the agency or department that has specified main- of a state bridge inventory (Illinois) (16). tenance responsibilities. An organization unit may be a Office of Maintenance Administration: The Office of Main- county, a maintenance section, district, region, or state- tenance Administration is a section of Central Office High- wide unit (AASHTO) (13). way Operations that cooperates with local governments to Organizational Performance Index (OPI): The OPI provides provide necessary resources to restore roadways to normal monthly information based on key performance areas for conditions during times of disaster. It provides techni- Plans, Highway Management, Construction Management, cal assistance in highway maintenance and construction Maintenance, Highway System Conditions, Snow and Ice, engineering matters internally and externally of ODOT. Human Resources, Finance, Contracts, Equipment, and Services offered include: Maintenance Quality Surveys, Facilities (Ohio) (19). Maintenance Quality Assurance, Maintenance Efficiency Outcomes: Outcomes are similar to levels of service and spec- Analysis, Transportation management System, Winter ify the overall results achieved from the maintenance pro- Maintenance Coordination, and Maintenance Policy gram (AASHTO) (13). Development and Implementation (Ohio) (19). Overcrossing: This term is used in the name of a structure Office of Pavement Engineering: The Pavement Engineering which carries State highway traffic and provides for pas- section is part of Central Office Planning. This section sage of a city street, county road or other facility other than provides the Districts with standards, policy, procedures, a railroad or another State highway, under the State high- data, and research to allow them to provide smooth, way (California) (22). quiet, cost effective pavements for the traveling public at Overhead: This term is used in a name when the function of a minimum of inconvenience (Ohio) (19). the structure is to carry a State highway over a railroad (California) (22). Office Of Structural Engineering: Structural Engineering is Overpass: A grade separation where the subject highway a section of Central Office Highway Operations and pro- passes over the intersecting facility (Idaho) (23). vides ODOT districts with standards, policy, procedures, Pavement: The paved area between the edgeline stripes training, design resources, data, and research to allow them (Ohio) (37). to continually monitor and improve the quality of ODOT's Pavement Condition Rating (PCR): A numerical rating of bridge inventory. This support will enable them to pro- pavement distresses on a 0 to 100 scale based on visual vide safe, cost effective, durable and smooth riding bridges inspection. A PCR of 100 signifies a perfect pavement with for the public, along with providing bridges that meet the no distress (Ohio) (19). needs of Ohio's growing economy (Ohio) (19). Pavement Management System (PMS): The intent of the Office Of Traffic Engineering: Traffic Engineering is a sec- pavement management program is to select, design, and tion of Central Office Highway Operations and provides construct pavement management treatments in an expe- technical assistance and consultation on traffic engineer- dited fashion to extend pavement life and maintain the ing matters. It coordinates ODOT's safety improvement pavement surface at the highest possible level of service- program, which make funds available to local govern- ability. The PMS can be accessed by General Query Lan- ments for safety improvements at high accident locations. guage (GQL), which can be used to provide a first cut list The office provides time lapse photography services in of candidate projects for all of the pavement management order to film hazardous locations and traffic operational treatments (Ohio) (19). problems, for further analysis. It develops, prepares, and Performance Measure: A performance measure is used to distributes the Ohio Manual of Uniform Traffic Control rate asset condition or maintenance performance. Sam- Devices and a traffic application standards manual to ple measures include height of grass, number of potholes ensure consistent application and design of traffic control per lane mile, and percent of signs below standard devices. It also provides review and consultation to local (AASHTO) (13). governments regarding traffic control devices and high- Performance Target: A performance target is a goal or objec- way lighting design and application (Ohio) (19). tive for the condition of assets or the road system. A per- Operation and Maintenance (O&M): Operations and main- formance target is usually a numerical rating, such as tenance encompasses all of the activities and services "pavement drop-off less than x inches." Performance tar- required to maintain infrastructure assets and provide gets vary by level of service (AASHTO) (13). services to the traveling public. O&M can generally be Performance-Based Budget: A performance-based budget is viewed as any activity other than new construction, road- based on the annual work program. For the budget to be
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82 performance-based, the annual work program must be Quantity Standards: For each activity the estimated number linked to specified performance targets, level of service, or of work units per inventory unit that must be performed expected outcomes (AASHTO) (13). each year to maintain Quality Standards (Ohio) (44). Physical Maintenance: Cleaning, painting, and repairing. Reactive Maintenance: Reactive maintenance involves activ- Replacements (using approximately same design) of rails, ities undertaken to correct defects and extend the life of the floors, stringers, or beams. Replacement of walls in kind. asset until a proper rehabilitation or reconstruction project Repair of drawbridges and ferries (AASHTO) (2). may be undertaken. Reactive maintenance is frequently Present Serviceability Index (PSI): The PSI is a measure of performed on a failing asset. It is a stopgap measure that pavement surface roughness or riding comfort. It is mea- keeps the asset at an acceptable serviceability, and is sel- sured on a scale between 0 and 5, with 5 being a perfectly dom cost-effective (Ohio) (19). smooth ride (Ohio) (19). Resources: Labor, equipment, and material available, needed Preventative Maintenance Category: The County Work Plan or used to perform an activity (Ohio) (37) has a Preventive Maintenance category. The category Riparian Area: The 300-foot (91.4 meter) slope distance from requires specific maintenance with specific cycles for each either side of the Channel Migration Zone (CMZ), or bank- identified maintenance activity. The activities encompass full width, whichever is greater (Montana) (30). traffic control, vegetation management, surface cleaning, Roadway: The area between the Right-of-Way limits includ- underdrain cleaning, and bridge preventive maintenance ing pavement, berm, shoulder, ditches, etc., (Ohio) (37). (Ohio) (19). Routine Maintenance: Budgeted work, performed routinely Preventive Maintenance: PM is a planned strategy of cost on a scheduled basis. It is intended to maintain the high- effective treatments to an existing roadway system and its way facility/element so that it substantially retains its appurtenances that preserves the system, retards future original intended use and function. Examples include: deterioration, extends the service life, and maintains or sweeping and debris removal; cleaning ditches, culverts improves the functional condition of the system without and catch basins; correcting moderate slides and slope substantially increasing structural capacity (Ohio) (19). failures; vegetation management and litter pickup; rou- Steel structure cleaning and repainting or the installa- tine bridge maintenance; rest area operation and mainte- tion of other coatings; installation of bridge deck protec- nance; pavement patching, crack sealing and routine tion; joint cleaning and sealing or replacement (Texas) (21). surface treatment; restoration/replacement of traffic con- Pre-wetting: The controlled application of temperature sup- trol devices; maintaining access control; drainage restora- pressant chemicals to "burn" or "stick" abrasives to snow tion; placing riprap; snow and ice removal; traffic control and ice pack (Montana) (25). (Montana) (25). Productivity: For each activity, the number of work units (1) the maintenance which keeps a highway includ- produced per person hour. Also, expressed as the num- ing all of its elements in or as close as possible to its orig- ber of work units produced by a standard size crew per inal constructed condition or its subsequently improved day (Ohio) (37). condition and (2) those traffic services and operations Program Activity Code (PGAC): The transportation man- which provide safe, convenient, and economic highway agement system uses PGACs to group associated tasks transportation for the public (Ohio) (37 ). and sub-tasks necessary to maintain our highway system. Repair of substructures, superstructures, decks, joints, Examples of these PGACs are pothole patching, snow and approach slabs and railing; spot painting; repair and oper- ice control, pavement markings, and facility maintenance. ation of movable bridges; installation of temporary bridges; The detail labor, materials, equipment use, and actual repair and installation of fender systems (Texas) (21). costs associated with these three components will gener- Sensitive (Critical) Areas: Sections of highways or highway ate a work accomplishment and a performance measure- features, the maintenance of which would detrimentally ment for each PGAC (Ohio) (19). impact (directly or indirectly) fisheries or other aquatic Pumping Plant: This term is used in the name of a facility species or habitat. Sensitive areas include: spawning that is assigned a bridge number because it is an intricate streams and those inhabited by federally listed sensitive facility of structural, mechanical, and electrical combina- aquatic species, especially trout and other listed or candi- tion for the purpose of preventing inundation of the high- date fish; those impaired water segments listed on Depart- way (California) (22). ment of Environmental Quality's 1996 "Section 303(d) Quality Level: The specified level to which elements of the List" for Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) Plan devel- highway will be maintained (Ohio) (44). opment and restoration; those receiving direct runoff Quality Standards: Guide line showing the level of mainte- from treated roads and highways where there would be nance to be attained for each activity (Ohio) (44). less than 100:1 dilution; those where a large volume of
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83 highway runoff can directly reach small, poorly flushed managers to analyze and utilize in decision-making ponds, lakes and wetlands; those where receiving water (Ohio) (19). temperatures have warmed by the time highway runoff Tube. This term describes an underwater roadway facility con- arrives; those areas where shallow ground water is overlain structed by lowering a prefabricated section in an exca- by coarse and permeable soils; facilities that allow surface vated trench (California) (22). water access to underground aquifers (Montana) (25). Tunnel. This term refers to a roadway section through a mass Separation: This term is used in the name of a structure which of earth. Some undercrossings and separations are also carries traffic of one State highway over another State high- tunnels (California) (22). way (California) (27). Underpass: This term is used in a name when the function of Short Spans: All structures 6.1 m (20 feet) or less, as defined the structure is to carry a railroad and provides for passage under "Bridges." Structures with a clear span of less than of a State highway under the railroad (California) (22). 3 m (10 feet), measured normal to center line of features A grade separation where the subject highway passes intersected are not included in the inspection program under the intersecting facility (Idaho) (23). (Idaho) (23). Unit Cost: The total cost of labor, equipment and material Shoulder: The area between the berm and foreslope or edge- needed to perform a unit of work, e.g., $/cubic yard, $/lane line and foreslope (Ohio) (37). mile (Ohio) (37). Slurry Seal: A slurry seal is a mixture of asphalt emulsion, Unit of Work: The unit of measure used to describe the quan- well-graded fine aggregate (sand), and mineral filler mixed tity of work performed for each activity, e.g., cubic yards, with water to produce slurry consistency (Idaho) (23). linear feet, person hours, etc. Also called unit of accom- Spot Locations: The exact location of certain roadway fea- plishment (Ohio) (37). tures such as bridges, culverts, rest areas, intersections, Unscheduled Maintenance: Unanticipated activities that etc., as opposed to continuous locations. Spot locations occur due to the unusual weather condition, vandalism, are measured to the nearest 1/100th of a mile (Ohio) (37). accident, etc. Work activities are conducted similar to rou- Structural Deduct (SD): Contained within the pavement con- tine maintenance activities except that work is unantici- dition rating process. It indicates those distresses which pated and poses imminent danger to the existing structures may be related to the structural integrity of the pavement or traveling public. In cases of imminent danger, work will (Ohio) (19). be only to repair existing structures, move obstructions, Structure Information Management System (SIMS): A ver- restore banks, protect property, or protect fish resources, sion of the ISIS database information in a PC Microsoft to the serviceable function of its original design. It does not Access database format. Information is copied nightly include construction of new roadway elements. Examples from the ISIS database to the SIMS Access database where include: stream bank protection; bridge maintenance such users can view data and generate reports (Illinois) (16). as debris removal, scour abatement (approaches, abut- Swath Mile: A 5-feet wide mowing cut, 1 mile long (Ohio) (37). ments and piers); repair slides and slope failures; repair of Thalweg (Montana Ref 30): the line extending down a chan- culverts (Montana) (25). nel that follows the lowest elevation of the bed. Viaduct: This term is used in the name of a structure of any Traffic Services. (AASHTO Ref 2) Operation of ferries, length, which carries State highway traffic along a steep side including cost of power, operators, and periodic replace- hill. It also is used as a compromise name for a long struc- ments. That part of operation of drawbridges charged to ture crossing over several facilities of approximately the highway traffic. same importance, any one of which alone would require Transportation Management System (TMS)--The TMS is a name category of Bridge, Overhead, Undercrossing, or a work order driven computer program that tracks work Separation (California) (22). accomplishments and actual costs for labor, equipment, Workload: The amount of work required to maintain the and materials used by our workforce. The purpose of highway to a specified level. Workload applies to a given the TMS is to have current data available for ODOT activity for a specific time period (Ohio) (37).