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NATIONAL NCHRP REPORT 668 COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Framework for a National Database System for Maintenance Actions on Highway Bridges

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TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2010 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* OFFICERS CHAIR: Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington VICE CHAIR: Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY Allen D. Biehler, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg Larry L. Brown, Sr., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Norfolk, VA William A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles Eugene A. Conti, Jr., Secretary of Transportation, North Carolina DOT, Raleigh Nicholas J. Garber, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, and Director, Center for Transportation Studies, University of Virginia, Charlottesville Jeffrey W. Hamiel, Executive Director, Metropolitan Airports Commission, Minneapolis, MN Paula J. Hammond, Secretary, Washington State DOT, Olympia Edward A. (Ned) Helme, President, Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City Debra L. Miller, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Corporate Traffic, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Mandeville, LA Steven T. Scalzo, Chief Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, WA Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO Beverly A. Scott, General Manager and Chief Executive Officer, Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority, Atlanta, GA David Seltzer, Principal, Mercator Advisors LLC, Philadelphia, PA Daniel Sperling, Professor of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science and Policy; Director, Institute of Transportation Studies; and Interim Director, Energy Efficiency Center, University of California, Davis Kirk T. Steudle, Director, Michigan DOT, Lansing Douglas W. Stotlar, President and CEO, Con-Way, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Peter H. Appel, Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT J. Randolph Babbitt, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA George Bugliarello, President Emeritus and University Professor, Polytechnic Institute of New York University, Brooklyn; Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC Anne S. Ferro, Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S.DOT LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC Edward R. Hamberger, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC David T. Matsuda, Deputy Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT Victor M. Mendez, Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC Tara O'Toole, Under Secretary for Science and Technology, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC Robert J. Papp (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC Cynthia L. Quarterman, Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Peter M. Rogoff, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT David L. Strickland, Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Joseph C. Szabo, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT Polly Trottenberg, Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy, U.S.DOT Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC *Membership as of October 2010.

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM NCHRP REPORT 668 Framework for a National Database System for Maintenance Actions on Highway Bridges George Hearn UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT BOULDER Boulder, CO Paul D. Thompson Castle Rock, CO Walter Mystkowski Denver, CO William Hyman APPLIED RESEARCH ASSOCIATES, INC. Champaign, IL Subscriber Categories Maintenance and Preservation Bridges and Other Structures Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2010 www.TRB.org

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY NCHRP REPORT 668 RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed research provides the most effective Project 14-15 approach to the solution of many problems facing highway ISSN 0077-5614 administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local ISBN 978-0-309-15524-3 interest and can best be studied by highway departments individually Library of Congress Control Number 2010941142 or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the 2010 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. accelerating growth of highway transportation develops increasingly complex problems of wide interest to highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of COPYRIGHT INFORMATION cooperative research. Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining In recognition of these needs, the highway administrators of the written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials published or copyrighted material used herein. initiated in 1962 an objective national highway research program Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this employing modern scientific techniques. This program is supported on publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of the FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, Association and it receives the full cooperation and support of the method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for Federal Highway Administration, United States Department of educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission Transportation. from CRP. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies was requested by the Association to administer the research program because of the Board's recognized objectivity and understanding of NOTICE modern research practices. The Board is uniquely suited for this purpose as it maintains an extensive committee structure from which The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; it the Governing Board of the National Research Council. possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and to review this state and local governmental agencies, universities, and industry; its report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. relationship to the National Research Council is an insurance of The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved objectivity; it maintains a full-time research correlation staff of by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. specialists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the research directly to those who are in a position to use them. researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation The program is developed on the basis of research needs identified Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. by chief administrators of the highway and transportation departments The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research and by committees of AASHTO. Each year, specific areas of research Council, and the sponsors of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not needs to be included in the program are proposed to the National endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Research Council and the Board by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. Research projects to fulfill these needs are defined by the Board, and qualified research agencies are selected from those that have submitted proposals. Administration and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Research Council and the Transportation Research Board. The needs for highway research are many, and the National Cooperative Highway Research Program can make significant contributions to the solution of highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement rather than to substitute for or duplicate other highway research programs. Published reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP REPORT 668 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Amir N. Hanna, Senior Program Officer Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Maria Sabin Crawford, Assistant Editor NCHRP PROJECT 14-15 PANEL Field of Maintenance--Area of Maintenance of Way and Structures Peter J. Weykamp, New York State DOT, Albany, NY (Chair) Dan Scherschligt, Kansas DOT, Topeka, KS Scott A. Sabol, Vermont Technical College, Randolph Center, VT Arunprakash M. Shirole, (formerly with Aurora and Associates), Robbinsdale, MN Edward Welch, (formerly with New Hampshire DOT), Concord, NH Pe-Shen Yang, Arizona DOT, Phoenix, AZ Thomas D. Everett, FHWA Liaison Eric P. Munley, FHWA Liaison Wendy L. Gagnier, AASHTO Liaison Frank N. Lisle, TRB Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS NCHRP Project 14-15 was performed by the Regents of the University of Colorado at Boulder. Dr. George Hearn was the Principal Investigator and the author of this report. Mr. Paul D. Thompson, Mr. Walter Mystkowski, and Mr. William Hyman (formerly with Applied Research Associates) were consul- tants on this project. Essential contributions were made by several departments of transportation (DOTs) including Alabama, California, Colorado, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and Wisconsin. These DOTs generously provided data on their bridge maintenance work, bridge inventories, and bridge element-level conditions.

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FOREWORD By Amir N. Hanna Staff Officer Transportation Research Board This report presents a potential framework for a National Bridge Maintenance Database (NBMD). This framework provides a uniform format for collecting, reporting, and storing information on bridge maintenance actions. Use of this framework will promote compati- bility of maintenance data reported by different agencies and will provide an effective means for using these data in evaluating cost and performance of alternative maintenance appli- cations or as a basis for cost-benefit analysis and evaluation of cost and deterioration mod- els. The material contained in the report should be of immediate interest to state bridge and maintenance engineers and others concerned with the maintenance and management of bridges. A variety of maintenance actions are performed by highway agencies to preserve highway bridges. Although similar maintenance actions are applied, practices for reporting mainte- nance methods, rates, bases of measurement, costs, performance, and other related factors differ among these agencies. There is no widely accepted system for uniformly recording data pertaining to maintenance actions. Without such a system, the reported data cannot be easily interpreted and used outside of individual agencies. Thus research was needed to develop a framework for a database system for collection, storage, and retrieval of related data. This database framework together with clear definitions of maintenance items will ensure proper interpretation of the data and facilitate their use by other highway agencies. Under NCHRP Project 14-15, "Developing a National Database System for Maintenance Actions on Highway Bridges," the University of Colorado at Boulder worked with the objective of developing a framework for a national database system for the collection and archiving of bridge maintenance actions, materials, and methods, and their effectiveness. The research included a review of the current practices relevant to reporting bridge main- tenance programs and developing the framework for a data system for collecting, storing, and reporting information on the contexts, actions, and outcomes of bridge maintenance. The data system was developed as a set of 13 tables presenting bridge maintenance actions together with bridge inventory and condition data. Within the dataset, the outcomes of maintenance actions, reflected by changes in bridge condition, can be evaluated and stud- ied to assess the effectiveness or costs of alternative maintenance applications or evaluate and develop cost and deterioration models. Also, to illustrate use of the framework, data were collected from 12 state departments of transportation (DOTs). These data resulted in complete datasets for 8 DOTs and partially complete datasets for the other 4 DOTs. In addi- tion, to promote consistency in terminology related to bridge maintenance actions, the research compiled and presented a glossary of terms related to bridges and maintenance.

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The agency's final report contains five appendices that provide information on bridge maintenance programs, the tables comprising the NBMD framework, a list of the element- level costs of maintenance actions, examples of the database framework use, and software to view and check the data tables. These appendices are not published herein but are avail- able on the NCHRP Report 668 summary webpage at http://www.trb.org/Publications/ Blurbs/164203.aspx.

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CONTENTS 1 Summary 6 Chapter 1 Background on Bridge Maintenance Programs at U.S. Departments of Transportation 6 Scope of Bridge Maintenance 6 Bridge Maintenance Scope and Definition 9 Terms in Bridge Maintenance 11 Maintenance Actions 14 Bridge Maintenance Data--Existing Practice 19 Maintenance Management Systems 20 Summary on Bridge Maintenance Programs in the United States 22 Chapter 2 National Bridge Maintenance Database 22 A Database for Bridge Maintenance 22 Standard Data for Highway Bridge Maintenance 29 NBMD Database 31 NBMD Tables 32 NBMD Identifiers 32 NBMD Naming Conventions 32 NBMD Keywords 34 NBMD Tables and Data Fields 42 File Formats for NBMD Tables 46 Chapter 3 NBMD Software Applications 46 Directory Structure 46 NBMD Applications 46 NBMD Viewer Application 59 NBMD_XML Application 62 NBMD_Size Application 63 NBMD Keywords Application 65 Additional NBMD Software 66 Chapter 4 Data Sources for NBMD 66 Bridge Inventory Data 66 Bridge Condition Data 66 Bridge Maintenance Data 67 Data Collection 67 Instances of DOT Maintenance 71 Applications of NBMD Data

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73 Chapter 5 Element-Level Costs of Maintenance Actions 73 Basic Computation 73 Maintenance Events and Element Condition Data 73 Identifying Elements 74 Element_Unit_Cost_Table 74 List of Element Unit Costs 76 Chapter 6 Glossary of Terms in Highway Bridge Maintenance 84 References 85 Appendices A through E Note: Many of the photographs, figures, and tables in this report have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the Web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.