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12 privately branded parking products on airport property. employee parking. These uses are not considered part of the Value-added services offered by private parking operators public or employee parking supply, although they may occa- vary, but may include valet parking, premium parking, sionally be accommodated within facilities that also accom- pricing promotions, frequent parker discounts, and auto- modate public or employee parking. Other airport parking mobile detailing or servicing. Airline passengers parking in areas may include parking for rental car staging or storage, this type of facility may drop off the other members of their parking for airport service vehicles, and holding areas for travel party and baggage at the terminal area before parking. commercial vehicles. Because of the need to travel in a shuttle bus and the time involved to travel to the terminal(s) compared with termi- nal area parking, this product is not desirable for short- Understanding Customer Segments term parkers. The characteristics and needs of airport parking customers Cell phone lots may be provided as a parking area for are important considerations in the operation and manage- greeters to park, free of charge, while they are waiting to ment of airport parking and familiarity with these character- pick up arriving airline passengers. Cell phone lots are typ- istics and needs is important to understanding, resolving, or ically located outside of the terminal area, but within easy preventing constrained parking conditions. The airline pas- access of the airport roadway and curbside system. The air- senger and employee customer segments that patronize air- line passenger calls the driver when he or she is ready to be port parking facilities are described in this section. Chapter 8 picked up, and the driver meets the passenger at the termi- of this Handbook discusses methods to obtain customer seg- nal curbside. Some lots contain a flight information display ment data at an airport. system (FIDS) to inform drivers of the status of arriving flights. A cell phone lot primarily serves to relieve terminal curbside congestion by effectively reducing the associated Airline Passengers dwell times of vehicles stopped at the curbside and by reduc- Airline passengers at an airport are classified as being either ing the volume of recirculating private automobile trips on origin and destination (O&D) passengers or connecting passen- terminal area roadways. gers. O&D passengers board a flight at the local airport to begin their airline travel or arrive at the local airport as the ending Employee Parking Products point to their airline travel, whereas connecting passengers only use the airport to connect to another flight. O&D passengers use For purposes of this research project, airport employees are some form of ground transportation to travel between the air- defined as employees of the airport operator, airline tenants, other airport tenants, or other aviation-related businesses port and the surrounding geographic catchment area, and con- located on airport property. The following employee parking necting passengers do not. Therefore, parking and other ground products may be offered by the airport operator: transportation options accommodate O&D passengers only. Table 3 shows the relationship between total passenger activ- Dedicated employee parking may be provided within ity and O&D passenger activity at the 15 representative air- the terminal area or remote from the terminal, and it may ports participating in this research project. The significance accommodate employees of a single employer, employees of considering O&D data is demonstrated by comparing of multiple employers, or employees working in a particu- total enplaned passengers and enplaned O&D passengers at lar location of the airport. Washington Dulles (IAD) and Portland (PDX) International Employee parking in public parking facilities may be Airports. In 2007, about 67% more total enplaned passen- offered at an airport. Within a public parking facility, an gers were processed at IAD than at PDX, yet about the same area may be dedicated for employee use, or employees may number of O&D passengers was processed at both airports. park in any space that is available to airline passengers. The following two characteristics of the O&D airline pas- Employee worksite parking may be offered at various facil- senger population influence the amount and type of parking ities around an airport. This type of parking may be provided required at an airport: in lots adjacent to the worksite, such as cargo buildings, aircraft maintenance hangars, rental car lots, flight kitchens, Resident versus nonresident share of airport O&D passen- airport maintenance areas, or central utility plants. gers and Purpose of the airline passenger's trip. Airport Parking Areas Not Covered An understanding of the characteristics of resident business in This Handbook and resident nonbusiness travelers will assist the users of this Airport operators often provide areas on airport property Handbook in determining the most appropriate strategies to to accommodate parking for purposes other than public or implement, remedy, or prevent constrained airport parking

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13 Table 3. O&D passenger activity at representative airports. 2007 Total Enplaned O&D 2007 Enplaned Airport Passengers (millions) Percentage O&D Passengers (millions) Large Hub Boston Logan International (BOS) 28.10 90% 25.29 Chicago O'Hare International (ORD) 76.18 44% 33.28 McCarran International (LAS) 46.96 87% 40.86 Miami International (MIA) 33.81 41% 13.80 San Diego International (SAN) 18.34 96% 17.60 Seattle-Tacoma International (SEA) 31.30 75% 23.47 Tampa International (TPA) 19.20 90% 17.20 Washington Dulles International (IAD) 24.53 52% 12.79 Medium Hub Bob Hope (BUR) 5.92 99% 5.86 Oakland International (OAK) 14.61 95% 13.94 Port Columbus International (CMH) 7.73 95% 7.34 Portland International (PDX) 14.65 85% 12.45 San Antonio International (SAT) 8.03 91% 7.31 Small Hub Huntsville International (HSV) 1.24 94% 1.17 Tulsa International (TUL) 3.22 95%99% 3.12 Source: Ricondo & Associates, Inc., and DMR Consulting, based on airport case studies prepared for ACRP Project 10-06. (115) based on the needs of the airline passengers using the airport's data. Although LAS served more than three times as many parking products. The characteristics of resident business and O&D passengers as IAD in 2007, IAD served approximately resident nonbusiness travelers vary from airport to airport; 50% more resident airline passengers. Therefore, as evidenced therefore, it is important for the airport operator to understand by the data in Table 4, it is important to understand the O&D the characteristics of its airline passenger market segmentation. market share that influences the parking supply on an airport- by-airport basis. Resident Status Trip Purpose Airline passengers who reside in an airport's catchment area are referred to as resident airline passengers. Nonresi- The purpose of the airline passenger's trip influences the dent airline passengers are visiting the region in which the air- decision whether to patronize airport parking and which park- port is located. ing product to select. There are many reasons for taking an air- The significance of the resident segmentation as it relates line trip. However, to gain an understanding of ground access to the airport parking supply is that spaces occupied by auto- mode choice behavior, two primary trip purpose categories mobiles parked for the duration of the airline passengers' influence passenger behavior--whether the airline passenger trips (long-term parkers) are used almost exclusively by resi- is traveling for business or nonbusiness purposes. The reasons dent airline passengers, as automobiles owned by nonresi- and circumstances for traveling are unique to each individual, dents would be located in the catchment areas of their home but general key comparisons of business versus nonbusiness airports. Public parking spaces occupied for short durations travel include the following: are often used by greeters and well-wishers visiting the airport to pick up and drop off resident or nonresident airline pas- The business traveler takes more flights per year than the sengers, people doing business at the airport, and those who nonbusiness traveler. visit the airport for retail and shopping purposes. The business traveler's trip is subsidized by the traveler's Table 4 presents the shares of resident airline passengers employer; therefore, the business traveler will likely be more at McCarran International Airport (LAS) and IAD. The dif- sensitive to travel time to and from the airport and less con- ference in the shares of resident airline passengers between the cerned about the cost of travel to and from the airport than two airports underscores the importance of collecting these the nonbusiness traveler.